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Recife, Brazil

Reis Neto A.S.,Federal University of Ceara | Cunha-Lignon M.,National Institute for Space Research | Cunha-Lignon M.,Free University of Colombia | Cunha-Lignon M.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The Brazilian mangrove area, estimated in 96,268ha, represents 7% of all mangrove area in the world. The most significant causes of past losses and conversions of urban mangrove forests are the urban development, the intensive use for timber production and, to a lesser extent, for fuelwood. But some projects for the conservation and sustainable use of mangroves in protected areas are being prepared, which could help to reduce the pressure on these forests. The Ceará river, located at 03°44' S and 038°39'W, near Fortaleza city (Brazil), has a total area of 1,158 ha of mangrove forests. The Ceará river's Estuary is a Unit of Maintainable Use administered by SEMACE (State Organ of Environment). The objective of this research was to compare the landscape of 1968 and 2009 and to evaluate the anthropogenic impacts in the view of Brazilian legislation, focusing on a mangrove ecosystem. It was also proposed activities of environment education and ecological tracks as social transformation tools. In the studied areas, the main activities are the disordered and irregular occupation of the left bank in the direction to the mouth of the river as well as a new neighborhood developed in the mouth of the Ceará river in the last few years, causing the deforestation of the fringe forest, a mangrove area, the pollution of the river due to the precarious sanitary conditions and the degradation of mangrove areas. The major deficiency off this mangrove forest is lack of a management plan, with the participation of both governments, state and municipal.

De Lima N.G.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Galvani E.,University of Sao Paulo | Falcao R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Cunha-Lignon M.,Federal University of Sao Paulo | Cunha-Lignon M.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the variation of air temperature between impacted and conserved mangrove areas by monitoring the microclimate and canopy cover of mangrove forests in the southern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were collected from September 2011 to August 2012 using meteorological towers installed below the canopy at a height of 2 m. Hemispherical photographs were processed to acquire the canopy opening and Leaf Area Index, which quantifies the area with leaves, trunks and branches. The mangrove vegetation structure was characterized in permanent plots located in conserved and impacted areas. All plants were identified and described. Evaluations of the temperature data using Pearson linear correlation, T Paired and Wilcoxon tests with a significance level of 5% indicated a 94% correlation with r = 0.973. The vegetation was dominated by Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) in both areas. The conserved mangrove forest presented a continuous recruitment of red mangrove seedlings and saplings, whereas the impacted mangrove forest was characterized by mangrove associate species and aquatic macrophytes, indicating environmental alteration. The absolute maximum temperatures recorded in the impacted and conserved mangrove forests were 36.1°C and 35.6°C, respectively. Moreover, the minimum recorded temperatures in the impacted and conserved mangroves were 8.6°C and 9.7°C, respectively. These results indicate that the temperature amplitudes are lower in the conserved mangrove (25.9°C) than in the impacted mangrove (27.5°C) and that the conservation status of the mangrove canopy contributes to the temperature variation in this environment. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013.

Menghini R.P.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | Menghini R.P.,Paulista University | Coelho Jr. C.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | Coelho Jr. C.,University of Pernambuco | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Since the fifties the Baixada Santista's landscape has been intensively modified by spreading unplanned and illegal human settlements, mainly by industrial and harboring activities. On 3 rd September 1998, a portion of the mangrove forests that surround the Barnabé Island, Santos, State of São Paulo, Brazil (23°55′23″S; 46°19′ 28″W) was affected by a fire due to the accidental spillage of a flammable chemical substance called dicyclopentadiene (DCPD). The goals of the current study were to determine the impacts as well as to assess the initial natural recovery of this mangrove forest. Six permanent plots, were established. Three of them were used to gather data from the adult individuals that survived after spillage (M1, M2 and M3) and the others to investigate the recruitments presents in the natural recovery (RN1, RN2 e RN3) using standardized methodology. Among the adult individuals, Laguncularia racemosa was the dominant species. The densities of dead stems for these quadrants, especially for M1 and M3, were very high reaching 65.39% and 48.97%, respectively. The RN1 and RN2 plots were also dominated by L. racemosa with 100% of the stems alive. RN3 was dominated by Avicennia schaueriana but showed a decrease in the proportion of alive stems (89.09%). The magnitude of the accident is evidenced considering half (M3) or more (M1) out of the total number of stems were found dead. Yet simple and inexpensive, the methodology applied in the current study showed to be an effective tool to evaluate impacts over mangrove stands. Finally, we recommend that Baixada Santista's integrated coastal management process must incorporate long-term mangrove monitoring.

Cunha-Lignon M.,National Institute for Space Research | Cunha-Lignon M.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | Cunha-Lignon M.,Free University of Colombia | Coelho Jr. C.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

Wetlands, including mangroves, perform diverse functions, besides the production of goods and services on an ecosystem and landscape scale. The combination of functions, goods and ecological services has a fundamental importance for society. The study of physiographic types is intended to help in dealing with and understanding the function of a complex system. Complex systems are those that share four attributes: diversity of constituents, interdependence between parts, connectedness and adaptation. This study was carried out in the Cananéia region, located in the southern coast of the São Paulo State (25oS), Brazil. Data from the 1980's to 2009 on the structural development of mangrove forests of two physiographic types, fringe and basin, were analyzed to discern patterns of spatial and structural organization. The fringe forests studied in the region presented a predominance of Rhizophora mangle and high structural development due to the high inundation frequency in depositionally stable sites. Fringe forests, located in progradation areas with low tidal energy, were dominated by Laguncularia racemosa with low structural development. The basin forests are dominated by R. mangle or L. racemosa, presenting reduced structural development in function of the lower inundation frequency, a predominantly sandy substrate and low salinity. But some basin forests dominated by Avicennia schaueriana were better developed reflecting the growth characteristic of this species. The results shown here highlight the large variations in the quality and intensity of forcing functions and the structural and functional diversity allowed by the plasticity of the species involved and their capacity to interact and adjust to the environment in which they develop.

Cunha-Lignon M.,National Institute for Space Research | Cunha-Lignon M.,Instituto BiomaBrasil IBB | Cunha-Lignon M.,Free University of Colombia | Kampel M.,National Institute for Space Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2011

The current paper examines the growth and spatio-temporal variation of mangrove forests in response to depositional processes and different salinity conditions. Data from mangrove vegetation structure collected at permanent plots and satellite images were used. In the northern sector important environmental changes occurred due to an artificial channel producing modifications in salinity. The southern sector is considered the best conserved mangrove area along the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Landsat TM5 images from 1997 and 2010 were processed using Geographical Information Systems. Supervised classifications complemented by visual interpretations and ground truth were used to map mangrove areas in both periods. In each permanent plot, all plants were identified and tree diameter, height, and incidence of associated species were recorded. Mean height, basal area dominance, and stem density were also assessed. In the southern sector of the study area, digital image analysis revealed shoreline progradation and mangrove establishment. These sites have demonstrated both vegetation growth and extension. In the northern sector, the satellite image analysis revealed an increase of depositional areas. An important number of associated freshwater plants were observed, inhibiting the establishment of mangrove seedlings or growth of saplings. Despite the high sedimentation rate, which enables mangrove colonization, the low salinity exerts indirect negative influence on mangrove development, considering that it creates good conditions to macrophytes reproduction. Coastal planning requires that the spatial differences be recognized as unique sub-systems due to the hydrodynamic complexity. Both on-theground monitoring of the vegetation structure and space-borne remote sensing are important tools to support coastal zone management.

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