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The Chlamydophila abortus was previously known as Chlamydia psittaci sorovar 1, it is a Gram negative and obligate intracellular bacteria. This microorganism is frequently related with reproductive manifestation in ovines, goats and bovines. The major manifestation are Enzootic abortion in bovines and enzootic abortion in small ruminants. There are few literary material about clamidofilosis in Brazil, so the present research had the objective to determine the presence of complement fixing antibodies anti-Chlamydophila abortus, correlating the results with the clinical examination and historical of the animals, besides variation in the zootecnic index, especially in the reproductive characters like high index of cio repetition, high abortion number, high neonatal mortality number etc. It was tested for the complement fixation test 220 serum ovine samples, from 26 properties, distributed in 19 cities, with historical of reproductive manifestation. It was found 19.55% (43/220) of positive tests to Chlamydophila abortus, obtaining 61.53% of focus occurrence. In the study low antibodies titers were found, not superior of 64. Abortion was the major reproductive manifestation observed, expressing 65.12% (28/43) of the total number animals serum positive, followed by estrus repetition and weak lamb born, with a frequency of 6.98% (3/43) and, lastly, neonatal mortality death with 4.65% (2/43). No significant association was observed between serum positivity and these factors.


PubMed | State University of Norte Fluminense, Federal University of Paraná, Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo and Refugio Biologico Bela Vista
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista brasileira de parasitologia veterinaria = Brazilian journal of veterinary parasitology : Orgao Oficial do Colegio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2015

A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguau, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%), N. caninum (6.2%) and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1%) were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.


Aqueno S.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Goncalez E.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Rossi M.H.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | De Campos Nogueira J.H.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinal plants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinal plants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a 60Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinal plants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinal plants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinal plants subject to long-term storage. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


PubMed | Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo, São Paulo State University, University of Santo Amaro and University of Sao Paulo
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2015

This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in So Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure.


Felipe K.B.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kviecinski M.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kviecinski M.R.,University of South Santa Catarina | Da Silva F.O.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Casearia sylvestris is a tree found in tropical America. In Brazil it is known mainly as Guaçatonga. Literature reports suggest that the leaves and other plant parts have been used by indigenous populations from South America in preparations, mainly aqueous or hydroethanolic macerations or decoctions, most times taken orally for the primary treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Aim of the study This article reports the results of an investigation about the antiproliferative effects of Casearia sylvestris on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods Aqueous ethanolic maceration and column chromatography were done to obtain a crude aqueous ethanolic extract (CAE) and a chloroform fraction (f-CHCl3). The human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used in culture. In vitro, non-cytotoxic concentrations were determined by MTT assay and the antiproliferative effect was assessed by the colony forming unit assay using non-cytotoxic concentrations. Effects on the cell cycle were observed through flow cytometry using a propidium iodide kit. Casearin C was identified in f-CHCl3 by chromatography and H1 nuclear magnetic resonance. The effect on some key proteins of DNA damage (phosphorylation on the histone H2AX) and cell cycle control (p53, p16, cdk2) was evaluated through immunoblot. Antiproliferative effects in vivo were measured in tumor tissue from Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice through the 3H-thymidine uptake assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. Results In vitro, EC50 values found at 24 h on MCF-7 cells were 141 μg/mL for CAE and 66 μg/mL for f-CHCl3. Inhibition on proliferation was recorded at concentrations as low as 4 μg/mL in the case of the f-CHCl3 (up to 40%) and up to 50% when CAE was added at 9 μg/mL. The cell cycle arrest was demonstrated by the reduction in terms of number of cells in phases G2/M and S, up to 38.9% and 51.9% when cells were treated with CAE, and 53.9% and 66.2%, respectively, when cells were treated with f-CHCl3. The number of cells in G1 was increased when the cells were treated with CAE (21.4%) or f-CHCl3 (27.8%). Key proteins of cell cycle control were affected. The treatments caused activation of p53, p16 and DNA damage found by the appearance of bands corresponding to γ-H2AX. The treatments caused inhibition of cdk2. CAE and particularly f-CHCl3 caused significant inhibition on tumor growth in mice (40% and 60%, respectively). Uptake of 3H-thymidine, thus proliferation was reduced in tumor cells from mice treated with CAE (>30%) or f-CHCl3 (up to 50%) compared to cells from control animals. Data from the trypan blue assay indicating a lower number of tumor cells in treated animals. From the overall, data from this study are in line with the traditional claims for the antitumor effect of Casearia sylvestris. Conclusions This investigation suggests that whether the extracts from Casearia sylvestris are cytotoxic at high concentrations, lower concentrations have antiproliferative effect and could be useful to complement conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, and should be evaluated further. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo, Federal University of Pelotas, Federal University of Santa Maria and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2014

The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1 sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1 genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1 region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.


Rodrigues M.M.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | Uchoa M.A.,Federal University of Grande Dourados | Ide S.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo
Brazilian Journal of Biology | Year: 2013

Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).


Peres J.C.F.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | de Carvalho L.R.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo | Goncalez E.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Berian L.O.S.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Felicio J.D.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2012

Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.


Fajardo T.V.M.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho | Eiras M.,Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo | Nickel O.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Presently, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd) are the only viroids reported to infect grapevines (Vitis spp.) in Brazil, among the seven viroid species already reported infecting this host in other countries. All grapevine viroid diseases are graft-transmissible and can induce losses especially when associated with viruses. The aim of this work was to confirm infection by Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in grapevine samples exhibiting yellow speckle symptoms in the leaves and in asymptomatic samples sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS). The occurrence of this viroid in Brazil was further investigated in a second study. Total RNAs and dsRNAs were extracted from five symptomatic plants and 16 asymptomatic samples, respectively. Specific primers were used for RT-PCR and amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced by the Sanger method. Eleven complete nucleotide sequences of GYSVd-1 isolates (366–367 nt) were obtained from NGS and from RT-PCR amplicons. Comparisons showed high identities (95.9–100 %) among ten isolates and an identity of 87.2–90.4 % with a divergent isolate (RM-BR). Phylogenetic analyses placed GYSVd-1 isolates in four clusters (types 1, 2, 3 and 4). All GYSVd-1 infections were confirmed by conventional RT-PCR and RT-qPCR using specific oligonucleotides and a labeled probe. This is the first report and molecular characterization of GYSVd-1 infecting grapevines in Brazil, and our survey indicates that this viroid could be widespread in the major grape producing regions of Brazil. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira de Fitopatologia.


PubMed | Instituto Biologico Of Sao Paulo, Instituto Butantan and São Paulo State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases : an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Rabies virus (RABV) isolated from different mammals seems to have unique characteristics that influence the outcome of infection. RABV circulates in nature and is maintained by reservoirs that are responsible for the persistence of the disease for almost 4000 years. Considering the different pattern of pathogenicity of RABV strains in naturally and experimentally infected animals, the aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of RABV variants isolated from the main Brazilian reservoirs, being related to a dog (variant 2), Desmodus rotundus (variant 3), crab eating fox, marmoset, and Myotis spp. Viral replication in brain tissue of experimentally infected mouse was evaluated by two laboratory techniques and the results were compared to clinical evolution from five RABV variants. The presence of the RABV was investigated in brain samples by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for quantification of rabies virus nucleoprotein gene (N gene). Virus replication is not correlated with clinical signs and evolution. The pattern of FAT is associated with RABV replication levels. Virus isolates from crab eating fox and marmoset had a longer evolution period and higher survival rate suggesting that the evolution period may contribute to the outcome. RABV virus variants had independent characteristics that determine the clinical evolution and survival of the infected mice.

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