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Vina E.,University of Oviedo | Parisi V.,Messina University | Abbate F.,Messina University | Cabo R.,University of Oviedo | And 8 more authors.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2014

Ionic channels play key roles in the sensory cells, such as transducing specific stimuli into electrical signals. The acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family is voltage-insensitive, amiloride-sensitive, proton-gated cation channels involved in several sensory functions. ASIC2, in particular, has a dual function as mechano- and chemo-sensor. In this study, we explored the possible role of zebrafish ASIC2 in olfaction. RT-PCR, Western blot, chromogenic in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, as well as ultrastructural analysis, were performed on the olfactory rosette of adult zebrafish. ASIC2 mRNA and protein were detected in homogenates of olfactory rosettes. Specific ASIC2 hybridization was observed in the luminal pole of the non-sensory epithelium, especially in the cilia basal bodies, and immunoreactivity for ASIC2 was restricted to the cilia of the non-sensory cells where it was co-localized with the cilia marker tubulin. ASIC2 expression was always absent in the olfactory cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time the expression of ASIC2 in the olfactory epithelium of adult zebrafish and suggest that it is not involved in olfaction. Since the cilium sense and transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli, ASIC2 expression in this location might be related to detection of aquatic environment pH variations or to detection of water movement through the nasal cavity. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Calavia M.G.,University of Oviedo | Montano J.A.,San Antonio de Murcia Catholic University | Garcia-Suarez O.,University of Oviedo | Feito J.,University of Oviedo | And 7 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2010

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are the members of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (Deg/ENaC) superfamily which mediate different sensory modalities including mechanosensation. ASICs have been detected in mechanosensory neurons as well as in peripheral mechanoreceptors. We now investigated the distribution of ASIC1, ASIC2, and ASIC3 proteins in human cutaneous Pacinian corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal-scanner microscopy. We detected different patterns of expression of these proteins within Pacinian corpuscles. ASIC1 was detected in the central axon co-expressed with RT-97 protein, ASIC2 was expressed by the lamellar cells of the inner core co-localized with S100 protein, and ASIC3 was absent. These results demonstrate for the first time the differential distribution of ASIC1 and ASIC2 in human rapidly adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors, and suggest specific roles of both proteins in mechanotransduction. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Cobo T.,Instituto Asturiano Of Odontologia | Cobo T.,University of Oviedo | Obaya A.,University of Oviedo | Cal S.,University of Oviedo | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Histochemistry | Year: 2015

The periostin is a matricellular protein expressed in collagen-rich tissues including some dental and periodontal tissues where it is regulated by mechanical forces, growth factors and cytokines. Interestingly the expression of this protein has been found modified in different gingival pathologies although the expression of periostin in normal human gingiva was never investigated. Here we used Western blot and double immunofluorescence coupled to laser-confocal microscopy to investigated the occurrence and distribution of periostin in different segments of the human gingival in healthy subjects. By Western blot a protein band with an estimated molecular mass of 94 kDa was observed. Periostin was localized at the epithelial-connective tissue junction, or among the fibers of the periodontal ligament, and never co-localized with cytokeratin or vimentin thus suggesting it is an extracellular protein. These results demonstrate the occurrence of periostin in adult human gingiva; its localization suggests a role in the bidirectional interactions between the connective tissue and the epithelial cells, and therefore in the physiopathological conditions in which these interactions are altered. © Copyright T. Cobo et al., 2015.

Amato V.,Messina University | Vina E.,University of Oviedo | Calavia M.G.,University of Oviedo | Guerrera M.C.,Messina University | And 8 more authors.
Microscopy Research and Technique | Year: 2011

TRPV4 is a nonselective cation channel that belongs to the vanilloid (V) subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. While TRP channels have been found to be involved in sensing temperature, light, pressure, and chemical stimuli, TPRV4 is believed to be primarily a mechanosensor although it can also respond to warm temperatures, acidic pH, and several chemical compounds. In zebrafish, the expression of trpv4 has been studied during embryonic development, whereas its pattern of TPRV4 expression during the adult life has not been thoroughly analyzed. In this study, the occurrence of TRPV4 was addressed in the zebrafish sensory organs at the mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Westernblot) levels. Once the occurrence of TRPV4 was demonstrated, the TRPV4 positive cells were identified by using immunohistochemistry. TPRV4 was detected in mantle and sensory cells of neuromasts, in a subpopulation of hair sensory cells in the macula and in the cristae ampullaris of the inner ear, in sensory cells in the taste buds, in crypt neurons and ciliated sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium, and in cells of the retina. These results demonstrate the presence of TRPV4 in all sensory organs of adult zebrafish and are consistent with the multiple physiological functions suspected for TRPV4 in mammals (mechanosensation, hearing, and temperature sensing), but furthermore suggest potential roles in olfaction and vision in zebrafish. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

De Carlos F.,University of Oviedo | De Carlos F.,Instituto Asturiano Of Odontologia | Cobo J.,University of Oviedo | Cobo J.,Instituto Asturiano Of Odontologia | And 7 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2013

The coordinate neural regulation of the upper airways muscles is basic to control airway size and resistance. The superior constrictor pharyngeal muscle (SCPM) forms the main part of the lateral and posterior walls of the pharynx and typically is devoid of muscle spindles, the main type of proprioceptor. Because proprioception arising from SCPM is potentially important in the physiology of the upper airways, we have investigated if there are mechanical sensory nerve endings substitute for the muscle spindles. Samples of human pharynx were analyzed using immunohistochemistry associated to general axonic and Schwann cells markers (NSE, PGP 9.5, RT-97, and S100P), intrafusal muscle fiber markers, and putative mechanical sense proteins (TRPV4 and ASIC2). Different kinds of sensory corpuscles were observed in the pharynx walls (Pacini-like corpuscles, Ruffini-like corpuscles, spiral-wharves nerve structures, and others) which are supplied by sensory nerves and express putative mechanoproteins. No evidence of muscle spindles was observed. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of numerous and different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles/mechanoreceptors in human pharynx that presumably detect mechanical changes in the upper airways and replace muscle spindles for proprioception. Present findings are of potential interest for the knowledge of pathologies of the upper airways with supposed sensory pathogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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