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Bik A.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Puga E.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Waters L.B.F.M.,Instituut voor Sterrenkunde | Waters L.B.F.M.,University of Amsterdam | And 19 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

In this paper, we present VLT/SINFONI integral field spectroscopy of RCW 34 along with Spitzer/IRAC photometry of the surroundings. RCW 34 consists of three different regions. A large bubble has been detected in the IRAC images in which a cluster of intermediate- and low-mass class II objects is found. At the northern edge of this bubble, an H II region is located, ionized by 3 OB stars, of which the most massive star has spectral type O8.5V. Intermediate-mass stars (2-3 M·) are detected of G- and K-spectral type. These stars are still in the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. North of the H II region, a photon-dominated region is present, marking the edge of a dense molecular cloud traced by H2 emission. Several class 0/I objects are associated with this cloud, indicating that star formation is still taking place. The distance to RCW 34 is revised to 2.5 ± 0.2kpc and an age estimate of 2 ± 1 Myr is derived from the properties of the PMS stars inside the H II region. Between the class II sources in the bubble and the PMS stars in the H II region, no age difference could be detected with the present data. The presence of the class 0/I sources in the molecular cloud, however, suggests that the objects inside the molecular cloud are significantly younger. The most likely scenario for the formation of the three regions is that star formation propagated from south to north. First the bubble is formed, produced by intermediate- and low-mass stars only, after that, the H II region is formed from a dense core at the edge of the molecular cloud, resulting in the expansion similar to a champagne flow. More recently, star formation occurred in the rest of the molecular cloud. Two different formation scenarios are possible. (1) The bubble with the cluster of low- and intermediate-mass stars triggered the formation of the O star at the edge of the molecular cloud, which in its turn induces the current star formation in the molecular cloud. (2) An external triggering is responsible for the star formation propagating from south to north. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society.

Sacco G.G.,National institute for astrophysics | Morbidelli L.,National institute for astrophysics | Franciosini E.,National institute for astrophysics | Maiorca E.,National institute for astrophysics | And 51 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

The Gaia-ESO Survey is a large public spectroscopic survey that aims to derive radial velocities and fundamental parameters of about 105 Milky Way stars in the field and in clusters. Observations are carried out with the multi-object optical spectrograph FLAMES, using simultaneously the medium-resolution (R ~ 20 000) GIRAFFE spectrograph and the high-resolution (R ~ 47 000) UVES spectrograph. In this paper we describe the methods and the software used for the data reduction, the derivation of the radial velocities, and the quality control of the FLAMES-UVES spectra. Data reduction has been performed using a workflow specifically developed for this project. This workflow runs the ESO public pipeline optimizing the data reduction for the Gaia-ESO Survey, automatically performs sky subtraction, barycentric correction and normalisation, and calculates radial velocities and a first guess of the rotational velocities. The quality control is performed using the output parameters from the ESO pipeline, by a visual inspection of the spectra and by the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra. Using the observations of the first 18 months, specifically targets observed multiple times at different epochs, stars observed with both GIRAFFE and UVES, and observations of radial velocity standards, we estimated the precision and the accuracy of the radial velocities. The statistical error on the radial velocities is σ ~ 0.4 km s-1 and is mainly due to uncertainties in the zero point of the wavelength calibration. However, we found a systematic bias with respect to the GIRAFFE spectra (~0.9 km s-1) and to the radial velocities of the standard stars (~0.5 km s-1) retrieved from the literature. This bias will be corrected in the future data releases, when a common zero point for all the set-ups and instruments used for the survey is be established. © ESO, 2014.

Eikenberry S.S.,University of Florida | Bennett J.G.,University of Florida | Chinn B.,University of Florida | Donoso H.V.,University of Florida | And 35 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, as well as probe arm industrial partner A-V-S (Spain). In this paper, we review the overall system design for MIRADAS, as it nears Preliminary Design Review in the autumn of 2012. © 2012 SPIE.

Bailey M.,Keele University | Bailey M.,Liverpool John Moores University | Van Loon J.T.,Keele University | Sarre P.J.,University of Nottingham | And 2 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2015

Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) trace warm neutral and weakly ionized diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Here we present a dedicated, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of two of the strongest DIBs, at 5780 and 5797 Å, in optical spectra of 666 early-type stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, along with measurements of the atomic Na I D and Ca II K lines. The resulting maps show for the first time the distribution of DIB carriers across large swathes of galaxies, as well as the foreground Milky Way ISM. We confirm the association of the 5797 Å DIB with neutral gas, and the 5780 Å DIB with more translucent gas, generally tracing the star-forming regions within the Magellanic Clouds. Likewise, the Na I D line traces the denser ISM whereas the Ca II K line traces the more diffuse, warmer gas. The Ca II K line has an additional component at ~200-220 km s-1 seen towards both Magellanic Clouds; this may be associated with a pan-Magellanic halo. Both the atomic lines and DIBs show sub-pc-scale structure in the Galactic foreground absorption; the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs show very little correlation on these small scales, as do the Ca II K and Na I D lines. This suggests that good correlations between the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs, or between Ca II K and Na I D, arise from the superposition of multiple interstellar structures. Similarity in behaviour between DIBs and Na I in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Milky Way suggests the abundance of DIB carriers scales in proportion to metallicity. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Sanchez Almeida J.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | Sanchez Almeida J.,University of La Laguna | Elmegreen B.G.,IBM | Munoz-Tuon C.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | And 12 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2015

Models of galaxy formation predict that gas accretion from the cosmic web is a primary driver of star formation over cosmic history. Except in very dense environments where galaxy mergers are also important, model galaxies feed from cold streams of gas from the web that penetrate their dark matter halos. Although these predictions are unambiguous, the observational support has been indirect so far. Here, we report spectroscopic evidence for this process in extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs) of the local universe, taking the form of localized starbursts associated with gas having low metallicity. Detailed abundance analyses based on Gran Telescopio Canarias optical spectra of 10 XMPs show that the galaxy hosts have metallicities around 60% solar, on average, while the large star-forming regions that dominate their integrated light have low metallicities of some 6% solar. Because gas mixes azimuthally in a rotation timescale (a few hundred Myr), the observed metallicity inhomogeneities are only possible if the metal-poor gas fell onto the disk recently. We analyze several possibilities for the origin of the metal-poor gas, favoring the metal-poor gas infall predicted by numerical models. If this interpretation is correct, XMPs trace the cosmic web gas in their surroundings, making them probes to examine its properties. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Filho M.E.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Filho M.E.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | Filho M.E.,University of La Laguna | Filho M.E.,University of Porto | And 8 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the H I component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbors. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local universe: ∼60% occupy underdense regions, and ∼75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the fraction of a certain galaxy type, it does not determine the overall observational properties. With the exception of five documented cases (four sources with companions and one recent merger), XMPs do not generally show signatures of major mergers and interactions; we find only one XMP with a companion galaxy within a distance of 100 kpc, and the H I gas in XMPs is typically well-behaved, demonstrating asymmetries mostly in the outskirts. We conclude that metal-poor accretion flows may be driving the XMP evolution. Such cosmological accretion could explain all the major XMP observational properties: isolation, lack of interaction/merger signatures, asymmetric optical morphology, large amounts of unsettled, metal-poor H I gas, metallicity inhomogeneities, and large specific star formation. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Filho M.E.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | Filho M.E.,University of La Laguna | Filho M.E.,University of Porto | Filho M.E.,University of Lisbon | And 8 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

The Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation between the gas mass and star formation rate (SFR) describes the star formation regulation in disk galaxies. It is a function of gas metallicity, but the low-metallicity regime of the KS diagram is poorly sampled. We have analyzed data for a representative set of extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), as well as auxiliary data, and compared these to empirical and theoretical predictions. The majority of the XMPs possess high specific SFRs, similar to high-redshift star-forming galaxies. On the KS plot, the XMP H i data occupy the same region as dwarfs and extend the relation for low surface brightness galaxies. Considering the H i gas alone, a considerable fraction of the XMPs already fall off the KS law. Significant quantities of "dark" H2 mass (i.e., not traced by CO) would imply that XMPs possess low star formation efficiencies (SFEgas). Low SFEgas in XMPs may be the result of the metal-poor nature of the H i gas. Alternatively, the H i reservoir may be largely inert, the star formation being dominated by cosmological accretion. Time lags between gas accretion and star formation may also reduce the apparent SFEgas, as may galaxy winds, which can expel most of the gas into the intergalactic medium. Hence, on global scales, XMPs could be H i-dominated, high-specific-SFR (10-10 yr-1), low-SFEgas (≲10-9 yr-1) systems, in which the total H i mass is likely not a good predictor of the total H2 mass, nor of the SFR. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Garczarczyk M.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | Antonelli A.,National institute for astrophysics | Bastieri D.,University of Padua | Becerra-Gonzalez J.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias | And 8 more authors.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

MAGIC is built to perform observations of prompt and early afterglow emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) above 25 GeV. The instrument is designed to have the lowest possible energy threshold among the ground based γ-ray detectors and the fastest reaction time to alerts distributed over the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN). The MAGIC-I telescope observed 57 GRBs during the first six years. In no cases Very High Energy (VHE) γ-ray emission above the threshold energy could be detected. The telescope has undergone several major improvements in sensitivity and repositioning performance. The biggest improvement in sensitivity was achieved with the installation of the second MAGIC-II telescope. Since more than one year both telescopes are observing in stereo mode. MAGIC are the only telescopes fast and sensitive enough to extend the observational energy range of satellite detectors, while GRB prompt and early afterglow emission is still ongoing. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

Garczarczyk M.,Instituto Astrofisica Of Canarias
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment | Year: 2011

MAGIC is a system of two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) for ground-based γ-ray astronomy. During many years, starting with the design phase of the first telescope in 2003, the upgrade of the second telescope in 2008 up to now, novel technologies have been developed, commissioned and continuously improved. Most components and subsystems represent nowadays state of the art techniques and are under consideration to be used in future detectors. The large reflector area, together with small diameter, high quantum efficiency (QE) photomultipliers (PMTs) in combination with an improved trigger and readout system permits an analysis threshold of 25 GeV, the lowest among current IACTs. MAGIC overlaps in energy with the upper end of current satellite experiments and gives the unique opportunity, for the first time, to cross-calibrate ground based versus satellite born detectors. Some selected techniques used in MAGIC, which are in context with this conference, are presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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