Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia

Mendoza, Argentina

Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia

Mendoza, Argentina
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Mergili M.,University of Vienna | Fellin W.,University of Innsbruck | Moreiras S.M.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia | Stotter J.,University of Innsbruck
Natural Hazards | Year: 2012

A GIS-based model framework, designed as a raster module for the Open Source software GRASS, was developed for simulating the mobilization and motion of debris flows triggered by rainfall. Designed for study areas up to few square kilometres, the tool combines deterministic and empirical model components for infiltration and surface runoff, detachment and sediment transport, slope stability, debris flow mobilization, and travel distance and deposition. The model framework was applied to selected study areas along the international road from Mendoza (Argentina) to Central Chile. The input parameters were investigated at the local scale. The model was run for a number of rainfall scenarios and evaluated using field observations and historical archives in combination with meteorological data. The sensitivity of the model to a set of key parameters was tested. The major scope of the paper is to highlight the capabilities of the model-and of this type of models in general-as well as its limitations and possible solutions. © 2011 The Author(s).

Pepin E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Carretier S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Herail G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Farias M.,U. de Chile | And 2 more authors.
Basin Research | Year: 2013

The study of the Las Tunas River incisions, located in the eastern Andean foreland front (33{ring operator}20' S in Argentina), provides new clues for the interpretation of deep piedmont entrenchments. Both the Las Tunas mountain catchment and its piedmont are strongly entrenched with maximal incision of over 100 m at the mountain front. Three main terrace levels are well exposed and are labelled T1, T2 and T3 from the youngest to the oldest. We combined geological and geomorphological field observations, kinematic GPS data, satellite data and aerial photos with geochronological 40Ar/39Ar and 10Be analysis to provide a detailed description of terrace organization and a discussion of the evolution of the Las Tunas landscape. The surprisingly constant 10Be concentrations in surface layers as deep as 1.5 m show that gently dipping alluvial surfaces can be continuously and deeply mixed. Our data show a first period of deposition (Mesones Fm) before 0.85 Myr (minimum T3 age), followed by deep erosion and a second sedimentation period (Las Tunas Fm) that includes a ca. 0.6 Myr ash deposit. T2 and T1 are inset in the Las Tunas Fm and were abandoned ca. 15-20 kyr ago. The similar ages for T2 and T1 show that post-20 kyr entrenchment occurred very rapidly. Despite Quaternary deformation in the Las Tunas piedmont, terrace entrenchment is best explained by paleo-climatic changes. The terrace organization reveals that the erosion-sedimentation phases affected the entire system from the piedmont toe to 10 km upstream of the mountain front. Finally, contrary to the neighbouring more deeply incised Diamante River system, where late Quaternary piedmont uplift is more likely to have been a factor causing incision, the more stable Las Tunas system provides an incomplete geomorphological record of Pleistocene and Holocene climate variations. We suggest that climate variations are better recorded in uplifting piedmonts than in stable ones, where the magnitude of incision and sedimentation and the fact that they occur repeatedly at the same elevation can erase a large part of the record. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers and International Association of Sedimentologists.

Kozlowski W.A.,University of California at San Diego | Deutschman D.,San Diego State University | Garibotti I.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia | Trees C.,Undersea Research Center | Vernet M.,University of California at San Diego
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2011

Presented is an evaluation of the application of CHEMTAX (CHEMical TAXonomy) to Antarctic coastal pigments collected along the western Antarctic Peninsula (wAP). Overall analytical error is <20% for all pigments involved in the analysis. CHEMTAX was stable within a range of input pigment ratios; data were analyzed in three bins based on light depths, with each year's data run independently. Results were validated by comparison to those from CHEMTAX methods that included randomized error, feedback loops and additional diagnostic pigments. Blooms during mid-summer (chlorophyll a concentrations >5γgL-1) were dominated primarily by either diatoms or cryptomonads. Mixed flagellates can also be abundant and Pheaocystis spp. and prasinophytes are frequently present in low concentrations. Comparison with microscopy shows CHEMTAX to give superior results in identifying Pheaocystis spp. with favorable results for other groups. This analysis shows CHEMTAX to be a reliable and stable tool for providing estimations of the main phytoplankton taxa in wAP waters based on long-term data collected during a 12-year time series. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Stoffel M.,University of Bern | Stoffel M.,University of Geneva | Casteller A.,University of Bern | Casteller A.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia | And 2 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2012

This paper presents absolute ages for flash floods and related sediment entrainment in headwater catchments to construct a spatiotemporal framework of process dynamics and locations of major areas of channel wall erosion. The most reliable method for dating erosion is through dendrogeomorphic studies of exposed tree roots. Based on the analysis of erosion signals in root-ring records we documented a time series of channel wall erosion and successfully dated 21 erosive flash flood events since A.D. 1870 in an ephemeral gully in the Patagonian Andes. The study was performed with roots from Austrocedrus chilensis, Nothofagus dombeyi, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Results demonstrate the potential of root analyses for the determination of major areas of sediment entrainment. In addition, we show that the position of damage within individual root rings allows inferences about the seasonal timing of flash flood effects and thus an assessment of possible meteorological triggers of erosive events, short intense storms occurring primarily in austral fall and late winter in this case. The approach presented adds significantly to the documentation of sediment entrainment and facilitates identification of areas of rapid erosion in small, remote headwater catchments with ephemeral flash flood activity. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

Cuneo R.,Museo Paleontologico Egidio Feruglio | Cuneo R.,CONICET | Ramezani J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Scasso R.,University of Buenos Aires | And 8 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2013

The fluvial, lacustrine and tuffaceous sedimentary succession of the Cañadón Asfalto continental basin exposed in the Argentinean Chubut Province of central Patagonia preserves an extraordinary record of Jurassic fauna and flora that marks key events in the evolution of Dinosauria, early mammals and major South American plant groups. However, basin-wide correlation of the fossiliferous units is complicated by fault displacements, unconformities and repetitive lithofacies. New U-Pb analyses of zircon (CA-TIMS method) from five primary tuff beds interstratified with the lacustrine strata establish a new chronostratigraphic framework for the sedimentary and volcanic units of Cañadón Asfalto Basin, constraining ca. 33. m.y. of depositional history and biotic evolution that spans nearly all three epochs of the Jurassic. Five major vertebrate- and plant-rich stratigraphic intervals have been identified, and are being actively investigated, that range in age from Pliensbachian to Kimmeridgian (or younger). Our combined biostratigraphic and high-precision geochronologic results indicate that the major faunal turnover of the sauropodomorph dinosaurs which led to the rise of the eusauropods took place in the Early Jurassic, earlier than previously recognized. Similarly, the first successful radiation of the ornithischian dinosaurs (heterodontosaurids), as well as the evolutionary diversifications of the araucarian conifers and the osmundaceous ferns, all occurred before the end of the Early Jurassic. The diverse palynofloral assemblage of the Cañadón Calcáreo Formation that was once considered to be early Cretaceous in age, is now entirely constrained to the Late Jurassic. © 2012 International Association for Gondwana Research.

Gonzalez Riga B.J.,National University of Cuyo | Gonzalez Riga B.J.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia | David L.O.,National University of Cuyo
Ameghiniana | Year: 2014

Quetecsaurus rusconii gen. et sp. nov. is a new titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Neuquén Basin of Mendoza Province, Argentina. The specimen comes from red mudstones of the Cerro Lisandro Formation (middle-late Turonian, Upper Cretaceous), and is the first sauropod with well-preserved remains to be discovered in this formation. The holotype includes a postorbital, teeth, the atlas, a posterior cervical vertebra, an incomplete dorsal vertebra, a posterior caudal centrum, dorsal ribs, a coracoid, fragments of a humerus, radius and ulna, and five metacarpals. It is characterized by the following combination of autapomorphies: (1) intercentrum of atlas with a prominent anteroventral border and expanded posteroventral processes; (2) posterior cervical neural spines with incipient lateral expansions; and (3) humerus with strongly sigmoid proximal border, rounded proximomedial border, and angular proximolateral corner. A preliminary dadistic analysis placed Quetecsaurus as a sister taxon of Lognkosauria (Mendozasaurus + Futalognkosaurus). Quetecsaurus shares with the lognkosaurs the presence of cervical neural spines with 'lateral laminae', but relatively reduced in comparison with those taxa. This discovery provides new information on the diagnosis of Lognkosauria within South American titanosaurs.

Cerdeno E.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia | Reguero M.,Museo de la Plata | Vera B.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia
Journal of Paleontology | Year: 2010

Recent field work at the Deseadan (late Oligocene) locality of Quebrada Fiera (Mendoza Province, Argentina) has provided new fossil remains that greatly increased the faunal assemblage of this site. A good number of specimens correspond to the Family Archaeohyracidae (Notoungulata) and are presented in this paper. Most of them are recognized as a unique taxon, corresponding to the genus Archaeohyrax, characterized by the presence of a strong, shallow, wide sulcus on the labial side of the talonid of m3. At specific level, it is identified with the species A. suniensis previously recognized at Salla (Bolivia). Specimens with different tooth wear degree show an intraspecific variation in occlusal morphology comparable to that observed among the Bolivian material. In addition to A. suniensis, an isolated p2 is tentatively related to Archaeotypotherium, due to their hypsodont but rooted condition and larger size. Two other isolated lower molars from this site had been previously related to this genus but they are comparable to the new specimens ascribed to Archaeohyrax. The identification of Archaeotypotherium is not well supported at present, but if later confirmed, it would increase the temporal distribution of the genus, so far recorded in Tinguirirican (early Oligocene) localities of Chile and Argentina. The recognition of A. suniensis in Quebrada Fiera establishes a greater affinity with the lower latitude Deseadan fauna of Salla than with that from Patagonia, where the genus is represented by A. patagonicus. Other faunal elements from Quebrada Fiera, however, do not support this affinity with Bolivia. Xenarthrans or some marsupials are equivalent to those from Patagonia, while other taxa such as the recently described notohippid or a rare, tiny metatheria are at present exclusive for Mendoza. The increasing knowledge of the Quebrada Fiera assemblage contributes to a better understanding of the paleogeographic scenario of Southern South America during late Oligocene. © 2010 The Paleontological Society.

Branham Jr. R.L.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia
Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica | Year: 2013

New orbits are calculated for Comets Humason (C/1960 M1) and Bowell (C/1980 E1). Humason's orbit is based on 34 observation made over 348 days and Bowell's on 203 observations made over nearly eight years. Both comets have hyperbolic orbits. Backwards integrations indicate that both comets had originally highly elliptical orbits which changed to hyperbolas by the injection of energy from the Solar System. Given that both of their perihelions are more than 3 AU from the Sun, the possibility of nongravitational forces is remote. For Comet Secchi (C/1853 E1), however, the orbit is hyperbolic at more than 100000 AU from the Sun and with no indication of nongravitational forces. If the orbit is a hyperbola at that distance, could the comet's origin not be from beyond the Oort cloud?. © Copyright 2013: Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

This paper presents a taphonomic study of vertebrate fossils from the Loncoche Formation (late Campanian-early Maastrichtian) found in the Calmu-Co area in Mendoza, Argentina. Four environmental stages were recognized in this site, (1) saline lacustrine systems; (2) fluvial systems; (3) deltaic systems; (4) shallow fluvial and lacustrine systems. The vertebrates found in the deltaic environment comprise disarticulated parautochthonous-allochthonous concentrations (taphofacies 1) of fishes (Chondrichthyes, Teleostei, Lepisosteidae and Ceratodontidae), turtles (Chelidae), dinosaurs (Titanosauria) and plesiosaurs (Plesiosauria). The disarticulated and fragmentary feature of these mixed concentrations (terrestrial, freshwater, marine) suggest a mixture of remains from littoral environments and fluvial systems. The above interpretation is based on the taphonomic attributes of these concentrations, which showed a high degree of weathering, abrasion and time-averaging. On the other hand, disarticulated parautochthonous concentrations (taphofacies 2) of dinosaurs were registered in the fluvial environment. These remains showed processes of fragmentation and abrasion due to hydraulic transport. Fossil-diagenetic processes include events of permineralization and cementation of vascular canals and fractures, phenomena of deformation and lithostatic compression. These evidences indicate that the Atlantic marine ingression (Maastrichtian-Paleocene) which covered northern Patagonia, spread until Calmu-Co, in the western Neuqudn Basin.

Branham Jr. R.L.,Instituto Argentino Of Nivologia
Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica | Year: 2014

A new orbit is calculated for Comet C/1861 J1 (Great comet of 1861) to replace Kreutz's orbit of 1880. The orbit is based upon 2,362 observations, 1,198 in right ascension and 1,164 in declination, made between May of 1861 and March of 1862. The comet's period of 364.96 ± 0.51 yr differs significantly from Kreutz's period of 409 yr. This orbit is linked with one calculated from 5 observations made in the Far East in 1500, possibly of the Great comet, by imposing boundary conditions on the differential equations of motion. The linked orbit indicates a period of 361.3 yr. This increases the probability that the Great comet is indeed the comet observed in 1500. Although the residuals are relatively random (16.0% probability of randomness), post-perihelion residuals are less random indicating possible deviations from Keplerian motion such as systematics error or nongravitational forces.

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