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Cruz-Rus E.,University of Malaga | Amaya I.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Valpuesta V.,University of Malaga
Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2012

The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Vallarino J.G.,University of Malaga | Osorio S.,University of Malaga | Bombarely A.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Casanal A.,University of Malaga | And 7 more authors.
New Phytologist | Year: 2015

The receptacle of the strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit accounts for the main properties of the ripe fruit for human consumption. As it ripens, it undergoes changes similar to other fruits in sugar : acid ratio, volatile production and cell wall softening. However, the main regulators of this process have not yet been reported. The white stage marks the initiation of the ripening process, and we had previously reported a peak of expression for a FaGAMYB gene. Transient silencing of FaGAMYB using RNAi and further determination of changes in global gene expression by RNAseq, and composition of primary and secondary metabolites have been used to investigate the role played by this gene during the development of the receptacle. Down-regulation of FaGAMYB caused an arrest in the ripening of the receptacle and inhibited colour formation. Consistent with this, several transcription factors associated with the regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway showed altered expression. FaGAMYB silencing also caused a reduction of ABA biosynthesis and sucrose content. Interestingly, exogenous ABA application to the RNAI-transformed receptacle reversed most defects caused by FaGAMYB down-regulation. The study assigns a key regulatory role to FaGAMYB in the initiation of strawberry receptacle ripening and acting upstream of the known regulator ABA. © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.


PubMed | University of Malaga, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The New phytologist | Year: 2015

The receptacle of the strawberry (Fragariaananassa) fruit accounts for the main properties of the ripe fruit for human consumption. As it ripens, it undergoes changes similar to other fruits in sugar: acid ratio, volatile production and cell wall softening. However, the main regulators of this process have not yet been reported. The white stage marks the initiation of the ripening process, and we had previously reported a peak of expression for a FaGAMYB gene. Transient silencing of FaGAMYB using RNAi and further determination of changes in global gene expression by RNAseq, and composition of primary and secondary metabolites havebeen used to investigate the role played by this gene during the development of the receptacle. Down-regulation of FaGAMYB caused an arrest in the ripening of the receptacle and inhibited colour formation. Consistent with this, several transcription factors associated with the regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway showed altered expression. FaGAMYB silencing also caused a reduction of ABA biosynthesis and sucrose content. Interestingly, exogenous ABA application to the RNAI-transformed receptacle reversed most defects caused by FaGAMYB down-regulation. The study assigns a key regulatory role to FaGAMYB in the initiation of strawberry receptacle ripening and acting upstream of the known regulator ABA.


Velasco L.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Cretazzo E.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Padilla C.V.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario Y Alimentario Imida | Janssen D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The complete genome sequence of one isolate of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 strain 9 (GLRaV-4 strain 9) was determined using a library constructed from the sequencing of the small RNA population. The RNA genome consists of 13,858 nucleotides and contains seven open reading frames. A 5’ non coding end (218 nt) is followed by ORF1 encoding the 261.5 kDa methyltransferase/helicase domains then, through a +1 ribosomal frameshift, by ORF1b encoding a 58.28 kDa product corresponding to the replicase RdRp. The ORFs that follow encode the 5.32 kDa P5 protein, the 58.12 kDa HSP70h protein, the 60.18 kDa protein, the 29.9 kDa coat protein and finally the 23.2 kDa p23 protein followed by a 127 nt non coding 3’ end. The analysis of virus-derived siRNA populations aligning to the GLRaV-4 strain 9 genome showed a major representation of 21-nt reads, suggesting the involvement of DCL4 in virus silencing. The profile of the vsiRNAs density along the viral genome differed clearly from that of GLRaV-3, the representative member of subgroup I of the genus Ampelovirus, that was present in the same plant. © 2015, Journal of Plant Pathology. All Rights Reserved.


Amaya I.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Osorio S.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Osorio S.,Institute Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea IHSM UMA CSIC | Martinez-Ferri E.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | And 6 more authors.
Biotechnology Journal | Year: 2015

Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsA's complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters. Although transgenic lines showed a moderate increase on AsA content, complex changes in metabolites were found in transgenic fruits. Metabolomic analyses of ripe fruits identified a decrease in citrate, glutamate, asparagine, glucose, and fructose, accompanied by an increase of sucrose, galactinol, and chlorogenic acid. Significant metabolic changes also occurred in leaves of 35S-FaGalUR lines, which showed higher non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), indicative of a higher constitutive photo-protective capacity. Overall, overexpression of FaGalUR increased total antioxidant capacity in fruits and the results suggest a tight control of AsA content, probably linked to a complex regulation of cellular redox state and metabolic adjustment. Engineering increased vitamin C content in fruits, particularly in tomato due to its high consumption, has been a goal of many laboratories. Here, the authors report the ectopic expression in tomato fruits of a strawberry D-galacturonic acid reductase (GalUR) involves in Vitamin C biosynthesis causes moderate increases of this compound. However, the expression of GalUR alters the content of several metabolites in the transgenic fruits and causes a general increase of antioxidant capacity. This study indicates that the homeostasis of Vitamin C is under a tight control likely because of a complex regulation of the cellular redox state. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Pesqueira A.M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cabaleiro C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Velasco L.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa
Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3; Ampelovirus, Closteroviridae) isolates from Galicia in northwestern Spain were selected to characterize their genetic diversity according to different factors (age, origin, location, variety, etc.). The vines belonged either to local white and red varieties autochthonous to Galicia or to varieties from other Spanish regions but widely used in Galicia. These GLRaV-3 isolates came from different vineyards in Galicia located in coastal or inner areas. Multiplex RT-PCR allowed the detection of isolates belonging to groups I, II, III-V and VI. Two genomic regions were studied in the isolates, the HSP70h and the capsid protein, using specific primers that allow the detection of variants from groups I to V. Some possible recombinants could be detected; however, multiple infections with different variants indicated that they were not genuine recombinants. No differences were found in the population structure considering variety or geographical factors. Isolates belonging to four groups were found in the distinct areas surveyed: groups I and II were the most common, followed by groups VI and III, as is the case in the rest of the world. In the same surveys, the presence of insect vectors for GLRaV-3 was investigated and found lacking in inland areas but present in those with milder climate. Genetic analysis did not support isolation of the GLRaV-3 isolates in Galicia, suggesting that the uncontrolled exchange of infected vines and/or rootstocks has been a major agent of virus spread. © 2016 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Dominguez P.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Miranda L.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Soria C.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | de los Santos B.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | And 5 more authors.
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2014

Strawberry is a high value crop worth 315.6 million euros in 2013 in Spain. Strawberry diseases are commonly controlled by soil fumigation with toxic chemicals. However, since 2007, the methyl bromide fumigant is banned for strawberry cultivation. Moreover, European policies are progressively restricting the use of other toxic fumigants such as dichloropropene. Alternative control techniques are thus needed. Therefore, we have tested soil biosolarization, a new technique combining soil biofumigation and soil solarization, to cultivate the Camarosa strawberry in 2010-12 at Huelva in the southwestern coast of Spain. Soil was biofumigated by amendment of fresh chicken manure at 12,500 kg/ha with or without Trichoderma at 3.5 kg/ha; chicken manure at 25,000 kg/ha; Brassica juncea pellets at 2,000 kg/ha; sugar beet vinasse at 15,000 kg/ha; or dried olive pomace at 12,500 kg/ha. Soil was then solarized for 30 days by covering with a clear plastic mulch. A control that received fermented manure remained uncovered. Our results show that the highest yield averaging 70,543 kg/ha and the lowest percentage of 12.6 % of second-class fruits were obtained by amendment of fresh chicken manure. Yields were also similar to the higher yields previously reported for chemical fumigation with 1,3- dichloropropene and chloropicrin. In addition, biosolarization is about 20 % cheaper than treatment with 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin. Biosolarization with chicken manure is, therefore, a promising sustainable option for strawberry production. © 2014, INRA and Springer-Verlag France.


Garcia-Tejero I.F.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Duran-Zuazo V.H.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Muriel-Fernandez J.L.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa
Water International | Year: 2014

Water scarcity is a threat to food production systems, with appropriate water management being a major part of the solution. From the adoption of the European Water Framework Directive to the latest proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy Horizon 2020, the strategic lines for establishing a balance between agriculture and water resources in the European Union have been defined, including an emphasis on water pricing. This paper discusses the situation of irrigated agriculture in semi-arid areas such as southern Spain in terms of water scarcity, highlighting the main advantages and disadvantages of water-pricing policies as a solution to more sustainable irrigation management. © 2014 International Water Resources Association.


PubMed | Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biotechnology journal | Year: 2015

Increasing L-ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) content in fruits is a common goal in current breeding programs due to its beneficial effect on human health. Attempts to increase AsA content by genetic engineering have resulted in variable success likely due to AsAs complex regulation. Here, we report the effect of ectopically expressing in tomato the D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) gene from strawberry, involved in AsA biosynthesis, either under the control of the constitutive 35S or the tomato fruit-specific polygalucturonase (PG) promoters. Although transgenic lines showed a moderate increase on AsA content, complex changes in metabolites were found in transgenic fruits. Metabolomic analyses of ripe fruits identified a decrease in citrate, glutamate, asparagine, glucose, and fructose, accompanied by an increase of sucrose, galactinol, and chlorogenic acid. Significant metabolic changes also occurred in leaves of 35S-FaGalUR lines, which showed higher non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (NPQ), indicative of a higher constitutive photo-protective capacity. Overall, overexpression of FaGalUR increased total antioxidant capacity in fruits and the results suggest a tight control of AsA content, probably linked to a complex regulation of cellular redox state and metabolic adjustment.


Cortes J.A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa | Mendiola M.A.,Technical University of Madrid | Castejon M.,Instituto Andaluz Of Investigacion Y Formacion Agraria Y Pesquera Ifapa
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

The effect of the weed Abutilon theophrasti M. (common name: velvetleaf) on the growth of cotton grown in the Guadalquivir Valley, was studied by examining the influence of weed density on growth of the weed and that of cotton. Velvetleaf impeded normal cotton growth caused production losses as a result of the stress the cotton was subjected to. Additionally there was competition among velvet leaf plants at high velvet leaf densities. The influence of velvetleaf density in coexistence with cotton has been also studied evaluating weed effect on the biomass of cotton and its production. Additional determinations included the velvetleaf seed production capacity per unit area and seed production per plant. These determinations were adjusted to hyperbolic, inverse linear and logistic models. Last, the economic damage threshold (EDT) was calculated using the efficiency level in control of velvetleaf in cotton. In this calculation the treatment cost and losses caused by the weed, in the crop, were taken into account. The EDT varied between 0.1-0.5 velvetleaf plant m-2, depending on the control methods used.

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