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Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Leidi E.O.,IRNAS CSIC | Valdes B.,University of Seville | Oliva S.R.,University of Seville
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2012

Although revegetation using native flora is a low cost way to stabilize soil and restore the landscape contaminated with metals, little is known regarding the Pb-tolerance of many of these species. For this purpose, we evaluated the tolerance of Erica andevalensis to Pb by growing plants in nutrient solutions with increasing concentrations of Pb (up to 100μM). Plant growth and different physiological parameters were determined to ascertain tolerance to metal stress. Additionally, an electron microscopy study coupled with EDX analysis was performed to get clues on the Pb uptake and translocation from roots into stem and leaves. The LOEC (the lowest observed effect concentration) of Pb was 40μM while the IC50 (inhibition concentration) was 80μM Pb. Chemical analysis revealed a root>stem>leaf accumulation pattern. There was a severe reduction in fresh biomass and chlorophyll concentration at the highest Pb dose. The SEM-EDX study indicated that Pb was mostly located in root epidermal tissues. The blockage of Pb on the root probably avoided its toxic effects by limiting Pb transport to other tissues.© Taylor& Francis Group, LLC.


Oliva S.R.,University of Seville | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Leidi E.O.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2012

The tolerance to high Zn was studied in the metallophyte Erica andevalensis Cabezudo & Rivera grown in nutrient solutions at different Zn concentrations (5, 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 μM Zn). Plant growth and nutrient uptake were determined. Metabolic changes were assessed by the analysis of peroxidase activity, organic metabolites related to metal chelation (amino acids, organic acids (malate, citrate) or protection (polyamines). While plants tolerated up to 1,500 lM Zn, despite presenting of low growth rates, the concentration of 2,000 lM Zn was toxic producing high mortality rates. Roots accumulated high Zn concentration (11,971 mg/kg) at 1,500 lM external Zn) apparently avoiding metal transfer into shoots. After 30 days of treatment with high Zn (1,000 and 1,500 lM Zn), the leaves accumulated high levels of glutamine. Shortterm treatment with 500 lM Zn, significantly increased the concentration of asparagine and glutamine in roots. Citrate concentration was also considerably increased when exposing roots to Zn excess. Metal immobilization in the root system, low interference with the uptake of nutrients and an increased production of putative organic ligands (amino acids, citrate) might have provided the Zn tolerance displayed by Erica andevalensis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Trigueros D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Rossini Oliva S.,University of Seville
Journal of Geochemical Exploration | Year: 2012

In the present paper we studied the accumulation of Pb in the species Nerium oleander, found growing in a mining area (Riotinto, SW Spain). Soil samples were taken around plants to characterize Pb contamination, and plant samples were collected in different sites in order to determine Pb content in leaves, stems and roots. Additionally, a hydroponic experiment was performed to determine critical Pb concentrations for plant growth and investigate the Pb tolerance strategy. Plants were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 20, 40, 80, 100 μM) during 30. days. We measured growth rates, water content (%), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids), and biochemical parameters (MAD, CAT, POD). The median total Pb concentration in soils where N. oleander grows was approximately 270. mg/kg, but the plant accumulated only 2. mg/kg in leaves, 13. mg/kg in the inner part of the roots and 26. mg/kg in the root bark (median values). Bioaccumulation (leaf/soil ratio) and translocation factor (leaf/root ratio) were lower than 1, indicating that the species did not translocate Pb to the aerial parts, which may be useful with regard to phytostabilizing Pb traits together with the ornamental flowers. Lead treatment inhibited plant growth and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves, and at the higher Pb concentration (100 μM), toxicity symptoms occurred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Jabaloy-Sanchez A.,University of Granada | Azdimousa A.,University Mohammed Premier | Booth-Rea G.,University of Granada | Booth-Rea G.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | And 5 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

The structure of the Temsamane fold-and-thrust stack corresponds to four units limited by anastomosing ductile shear zones cutting a trend of south verging recumbent folds. This ductile stack was formed in an inclined left-handed transpressional zone at the North African paleomargin during Chattian to Langhian times producing two main deformational events. The first event (Dp) produced a Sp/Lp planar linear fabric generated in a non-coaxial deformation with a top-to-the-WSW sense of movement and was associated to metamorphic P-T conditions varying from late diagenesis in the southernmost Temsamane outcrops to epizone in the north. According to the 40Ar/39Ar ages, this deformation occurred at Chattian-Aquitanian times. The second deformational event (Dc event) generated ENE-WSW trending folds with SSE vergence and a set of anastomosing shear zones with Sm/Lm planar linear fabric. The latter units were generated at around 15Ma (Langhian), and indicate a strong localization of the simple shear component of the transpression. Moreover, this orientation is compatible with the kinematics of the Temsamane detachment, which can explain most of the uplift of the Temsamane rocks from the middle to the uppermost crust. The described evolution indicates that collision between the western Mediterranean terranes and the North African paleomargin and the formation of the Rifean orogenic wedge occurred at Chattian to Langhian times. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pena A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Palma R.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2011

Surfactants, which are emitted to soils mainly through wastewater disposal and also for remediation purposes, can alter pesticide sorption/desorption as well as the water flow through the soil. As a consequence, pesticide mobility may change and affect groundwater quality. Therefore, a deep insight into the coupled transport of pesticides and surfactants is necessary and helpful for contamination prevention and remediation. Dimethoate leaching was performed after flowing wastewater and surfactant solutions (Tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) through disturbed soil columns. To identify relevant parameters related to dimethoate mobility, breakthrough curves were fitted with convection dispersion (CDE) transport model. In all cases, the elution peaks showed a rapid release in the early tailing followed by a much slower release in the extended tailing with a retention factor close to 1, as corresponds to a weakly retained compound. CDE non-equilibrium parameters showed that, independently from the leaching solution employed, most of the pesticide was transported in the solution phase (convective transport). Infiltrated volume for wastewater was the highest (2× Tween and 5× SDS) for the same infiltration period, which increases the risk of early groundwater pollution. On the other hand, SDS decreased soil permeability providing a slight retention of dimethoate on soil, mainly in the lower column layer. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hernandez-Soriano M.C.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Pena A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

A batch test was used to evaluate the extent of desorption of diazinon and dimethoate, preadsorbed on a calcareous agricultural soil, representative of the Mediterranean area. Urban wastewater from a secondary treatment and seven surfactant solutions, at concentrations ranging from 0.75mgL -1 to 10gL -1, were used. The surfactants assayed were cationic (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HD)), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Aerosol 22 (A22) and Biopower (BP)), and nonionic (Tween 80 (TW), Triton X 100 (TX) and Glucopon 600 (G600)). Desorption of dimethoate was either not affected or only slightly by the nonionic and anionic surfactants tested, while desorption of diazinon from the soil was only enhanced by A22, BP and TW. This desorption increase correlated significantly with the surfactant concentration of the solution used for desorption and with the concurrent increase in the supernatant of the dissolved organic carbon, in particular that originating from the surfactant. This parameter did not vary with the use of SDS, G600 and TX. The cationic surfactant HD was retained on the soil surface, as confirmed by an increase in soil organic carbon, resulting in a fall in desorption rate for both pesticides. Comparing treatment by wastewater with control water, there was no difference in desorption rate for either pesticide. Mixed TW/anionic surfactant solutions either did not modify or slightly increased desorption of both pesticides in comparison with individual surfactant solutions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Sevilla-Perea A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Almendros G.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2014

A valuable feature of sewage sludge used for restoring degraded soils is its supplying capacity for C, N and P. A series of laboratory incubation experiments to quantify the release of N and P from raw (dried) and co-composted urban sewage sludges applied to mine dump soil were conducted. The effect of application dose (0-100gkg-1) and incubation time (0-30 day) on N and P mineralization as well as the process modelling were carried out by Response Surface Methodology. Models fitted revealed significant interaction effects between factors involved in soil-sludge dynamics, which accounted for 26% total variance in N-mineralization. The response models were used to predict nutrient releases required in properly formulating sludge management guidelines, viz. maximum simultaneous value for extractable inorganic forms of N and P achieved 11 and 18 days after applying 100gkg-1 of co-compost and dried sludge, respectively. Addition of sludges resulted into mineralization of 18% total N and up to 15% total P, while chemical and biochemical properties of the amended soil were improved paralleling organic matter mineralization. Compared to dried sludge, co-composting sludge lead to a decline of up to 30% and 65% in the availability in soil of N and P, respectively, but at expenses of C losses of only 7%, illustrating that co-composting was superior in turning sludge into an environmentally safe soil amendment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Sevilla-Perea A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Romero-Puertas M.C.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidín | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R2 ≥ 0.94 and Q2 ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernandez-Galvez J.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Galvez A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Pena A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

The use of treated effluents for irrigation as well as the addition of amendments could have an impact on the physico-chemical properties of soils. The main objective of this study was to evaluate, at laboratory scale, the combined effect of solid organic amendment and treated wastewater on the hydrophysical characteristics of four agricultural soils in a semiarid area. Soil texture varies from clay to sandy loam; calcium carbonate is abundant and organic C content for natural soils is always below 1%. Urban sewage sludge and a commercial organic fertilizer were added as ameliorants, whilst treated urban wastewater and distilled water were used as influents. A D-optimal design with soil type, amendment and irrigation water quality as factors was used for evaluating the hydraulic characteristics from laboratory infiltration experiments. Main effects as well as factor interactions were considered. Results indicated that soil hydrophysical properties were significantly influenced by soil type and irrigation water quality, with an interaction effect. Soil hydraulic properties such as saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity showed a negative relationship with both soil electrical conductivity and organic C, whereas a positive relationship was noted with the amount of Na in the irrigation water. On the other hand, chemical properties of the leachate were affected by amendment and soil type, also with significant interaction effect. The addition of amendments increased leachate organic C and results indicated that the soil matrix retains the less complex organic matter promoted by bonds with Ca 2+ from the abundance of calcium carbonate content in the soil. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hernandez-Soriano M.D.C.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Pena A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2011

Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH 2OH·HCl, H 2O 2 + NH 4AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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