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Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Leidi E.O.,IRNAS CSIC | Valdes B.,University of Seville | Oliva S.R.,University of Seville
International Journal of Phytoremediation | Year: 2012

Although revegetation using native flora is a low cost way to stabilize soil and restore the landscape contaminated with metals, little is known regarding the Pb-tolerance of many of these species. For this purpose, we evaluated the tolerance of Erica andevalensis to Pb by growing plants in nutrient solutions with increasing concentrations of Pb (up to 100μM). Plant growth and different physiological parameters were determined to ascertain tolerance to metal stress. Additionally, an electron microscopy study coupled with EDX analysis was performed to get clues on the Pb uptake and translocation from roots into stem and leaves. The LOEC (the lowest observed effect concentration) of Pb was 40μM while the IC50 (inhibition concentration) was 80μM Pb. Chemical analysis revealed a root>stem>leaf accumulation pattern. There was a severe reduction in fresh biomass and chlorophyll concentration at the highest Pb dose. The SEM-EDX study indicated that Pb was mostly located in root epidermal tissues. The blockage of Pb on the root probably avoided its toxic effects by limiting Pb transport to other tissues.© Taylor& Francis Group, LLC.

Oliva S.R.,University of Seville | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Leidi E.O.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Seville
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2012

The tolerance to high Zn was studied in the metallophyte Erica andevalensis Cabezudo & Rivera grown in nutrient solutions at different Zn concentrations (5, 500, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 μM Zn). Plant growth and nutrient uptake were determined. Metabolic changes were assessed by the analysis of peroxidase activity, organic metabolites related to metal chelation (amino acids, organic acids (malate, citrate) or protection (polyamines). While plants tolerated up to 1,500 lM Zn, despite presenting of low growth rates, the concentration of 2,000 lM Zn was toxic producing high mortality rates. Roots accumulated high Zn concentration (11,971 mg/kg) at 1,500 lM external Zn) apparently avoiding metal transfer into shoots. After 30 days of treatment with high Zn (1,000 and 1,500 lM Zn), the leaves accumulated high levels of glutamine. Shortterm treatment with 500 lM Zn, significantly increased the concentration of asparagine and glutamine in roots. Citrate concentration was also considerably increased when exposing roots to Zn excess. Metal immobilization in the root system, low interference with the uptake of nutrients and an increased production of putative organic ligands (amino acids, citrate) might have provided the Zn tolerance displayed by Erica andevalensis. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Jabaloy-Sanchez A.,University of Granada | Azdimousa A.,University Mohammed Premier | Booth-Rea G.,University of Granada | Booth-Rea G.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | And 5 more authors.
Tectonophysics | Year: 2015

The structure of the Temsamane fold-and-thrust stack corresponds to four units limited by anastomosing ductile shear zones cutting a trend of south verging recumbent folds. This ductile stack was formed in an inclined left-handed transpressional zone at the North African paleomargin during Chattian to Langhian times producing two main deformational events. The first event (Dp) produced a Sp/Lp planar linear fabric generated in a non-coaxial deformation with a top-to-the-WSW sense of movement and was associated to metamorphic P-T conditions varying from late diagenesis in the southernmost Temsamane outcrops to epizone in the north. According to the 40Ar/39Ar ages, this deformation occurred at Chattian-Aquitanian times. The second deformational event (Dc event) generated ENE-WSW trending folds with SSE vergence and a set of anastomosing shear zones with Sm/Lm planar linear fabric. The latter units were generated at around 15Ma (Langhian), and indicate a strong localization of the simple shear component of the transpression. Moreover, this orientation is compatible with the kinematics of the Temsamane detachment, which can explain most of the uplift of the Temsamane rocks from the middle to the uppermost crust. The described evolution indicates that collision between the western Mediterranean terranes and the North African paleomargin and the formation of the Rifean orogenic wedge occurred at Chattian to Langhian times. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Sevilla-Perea A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Almendros G.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2014

A valuable feature of sewage sludge used for restoring degraded soils is its supplying capacity for C, N and P. A series of laboratory incubation experiments to quantify the release of N and P from raw (dried) and co-composted urban sewage sludges applied to mine dump soil were conducted. The effect of application dose (0-100gkg-1) and incubation time (0-30 day) on N and P mineralization as well as the process modelling were carried out by Response Surface Methodology. Models fitted revealed significant interaction effects between factors involved in soil-sludge dynamics, which accounted for 26% total variance in N-mineralization. The response models were used to predict nutrient releases required in properly formulating sludge management guidelines, viz. maximum simultaneous value for extractable inorganic forms of N and P achieved 11 and 18 days after applying 100gkg-1 of co-compost and dried sludge, respectively. Addition of sludges resulted into mineralization of 18% total N and up to 15% total P, while chemical and biochemical properties of the amended soil were improved paralleling organic matter mineralization. Compared to dried sludge, co-composting sludge lead to a decline of up to 30% and 65% in the availability in soil of N and P, respectively, but at expenses of C losses of only 7%, illustrating that co-composting was superior in turning sludge into an environmentally safe soil amendment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Sevilla-Perea A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic | Romero-Puertas M.C.,CSIC - Experimental Station of El Zaidin | Mingorance M.D.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Ugr Csic
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

This study was aimed to 1) properly understand the dynamics of toxic elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Zn and As) in a sulphide-mine soil after combined application of compost from urban sewage sludge (SVC) and bottom ashes from biomass combustion (BA) and to 2) optimize the combination of both amendments for vegetation growth. Soil was amended following a D-optimal design and the mixtures (15 in total) were incubated during 30 d. At the end of the incubation, the effects of amendments on the assessed variables as well as the process modelling were evaluated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The process modelling confirmed that quadratic models were adequate to explain the behaviour of the assessed variables (R2 ≥ 0.94 and Q2 ≥ 0.75). Both amendments significantly increased pH and electrical conductivity, while reduced metal extractability. A different behaviour of As respect to metals was observed and high doses of BA sharply increased its extractability. The optimization process indicated that adequate conditions for vegetation growth would be reached adding the soil with 6.8% of SVC and 3.1% of BA (dry weight). After amendments application the germination and root elongation of three energy crops were significantly increased while lipid peroxidation was decreased. Therefore, the combined application of SVC and BA to a contaminated soil could improve soil conditions and might be expected to have an advantage during plant growth. Moreover, the RSM could be a powerful technique for the assessment of combined amendment effects on soil properties and their effective application in multielement-contaminated soils. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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