Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi

Leticia, Colombia

Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi

Leticia, Colombia
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Dias L.G.,University of Caldas | Cardenas Lopez T.,University of Caldas | Laython M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2016

With this work, the known distribution of Tricorythopsis rondoniensis in Colombia is expanded, with the first record of this species for the Amazonas and Guaviare Colombian departments. Additionally, the known distribution of T. rondoniensis expands in the department of Meta, with a new record for the Municipality of San Juan de Arama, the closest to Andean region for the genus. These findings extend the records of this species in Colombia and corroborate the proposed distribution for the genus Tricorythopsis. © 2016, Sociedad Colombiana de Entomologia. All rights reserved.

Cardenas D.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Gonzalez-Caro S.,National University of Colombia | Duivenvoorden J.,University of Amsterdam | Feeley K.,University of Miami | Duque A.,National University of Colombia
Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics | Year: 2017

We evaluate the role of differences in substrate age and environmental conditions, as represented by different geological units, in determining the phylogenetic structure and distribution of tree communities in the northwest Amazon. We used 412 0.1-ha plots distributed across the three main geological units (craton, tertiary and alluvial) in the Colombian Amazon, to answer the following research questions: i) To what extent do environmental filtering and dispersal limitation determine the phylogenetic composition of tree communities across geological units in the Colombian Amazon? and ii) Are there differences between geological units in the extent to which niche conservatism shapes the phylogenetic structure of indicator species (i.e., strong habitat-specialists) in tree communities? The results of our study give support for both environmental filtering and dispersal being important drivers of the phylogenetic structure and turnover of tree communities. Nonetheless, the extent to which geology explained the phylogenetic turnover of tree communities was surpassed by the geographic distance between plots, which was used to account for effects of dispersal limitation. This finding suggests that most of the lineages have had sufficient time to migrate and establish into adjacent geological units, contradicting claims that geological conditions are the dominant factors determining the distribution of tree communities across northwestern Amazonia. However, in the craton unit, indicator species were more closely related than expected by chance, while in the alluvial and tertiary units, observed relationships were not statistically different from null expectations. These results indicate that environmental filtering is asymmetrical among geological units, with the craton environment being the most restrictive. In contrast, the alluvial unit may be relatively easy to colonize and hence ecological strategies may be more labile through evolutionary history. © 2017 Elsevier GmbH

Van Kleunen M.,University of Konstanz | Dawson W.,University of Konstanz | Essl F.,University of Vienna | Pergl J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 44 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

All around the globe, humans have greatly altered the abiotic and biotic environment with ever-increasing speed. One defining feature of the Anthropocene epoch is the erosion of biogeographical barriers by human-mediated dispersal of species into new regions, where they can naturalize and cause ecological, economic and social damage. So far, no comprehensive analysis of the global accumulation and exchange of alien plant species between continents has been performed, primarily because of a lack of data. Here we bridge this knowledge gap by using a unique global database on the occurrences of naturalized alien plant species in 481 mainland and 362 island regions. In total, 13,168 plant species, corresponding to 3.9% of the extant global vascular flora, or approximately the size of the native European flora, have become naturalized somewhere on the globe as a result of human activity. North America has accumulated the largest number of naturalized species, whereas the Pacific Islands show the fastest increase in species numbers with respect to their land area. Continents in the Northern Hemisphere have been the major donors of naturalized alien species to all other continents. Our results quantify for the first time the extent of plant naturalizations worldwide, and illustrate the urgent need for globally integrated efforts to control, manage and understand the spread of alien species. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Avellaneda M.N.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Duque S.R.,National University of Colombia
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2010

Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales, Bacillariophyceae). The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum.

Correa S.B.,University of Georgia | Winemiller K.,Texas A&M University | Cardenas D.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi
Biota Neotropica | Year: 2016

Isotopic variation within food sources adds uncertainty to models intended to reconstruct trophic pathways. Understanding this variation is pivotal for planning sampling protocols for food-web research. This study investigates natural variation in C and N stable isotopes among plant species in two western Amazon flooded forests with contrasting watershed biogeochemistry (white-water várzea-forest and black-water igapó -forest). Our objectives were to compare δ13C and δ15N of leaves and fruits between sites; assess the magnitude of within-site variation in δ13C and δ15N of leaves (várzea: 28 spp., igapó: 10 spp.) and fruits (várzea: 22 spp., igapó: 22 spp.); determine within-plant variation in δ13C and δ15 of leaf, wood and fruit tissues; and test whether inter-specific variation in δ13C and δ15N influence the results of a mixing model predicting the contribution of terrestrial C sources to an aquatic consumer. Mean δ13C values of leaves and fruits were not statistically different between the two sites despite regional differences in biogeochemistry and floristic composition. In contrast, mean δ15N of leaves and fruits were significantly lower at the várzea than at the igapósite. The high floristic diversity of both forests was reflected in large within-site interspecific variation in both δ13C and δ15N. Paired comparisons revealed that δ13C of wood and fruits and δ15N of fruits were generally greater than values obtained for leaves from the same plant. The predicted contribution of different carbon sources to the consumer biomass changed between models as a function of source variability. We discuss implications of source variation for designing sampling protocols, interpreting isotopic signatures, and establishing trophic links between plants and consumers. Our findings highlight the importance of in situ sampling to establish reliable primary production baselines for local food webs. © 2016, Universidade Estadual de Campinas UNICAMP. All rights reserved.

Carrillo M.P.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Hernandez M.S.,National University of Colombia | Barrera J.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Six different experiments were conducted to give some practical recommendation to apply 1-MCP during the postharvest handling chain of arazá fruit (Eugenia stipitata McVaugh). Fruit were harvested in three stages of maturity (mature-green primarily, turning and mature) and treated for 1 to 12h with 0 (control in air) or 1μLL -1 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at 20°C. The mature-green fruit were subjected to different storage conditions (7, 10, 12, 13, 20 or 27°C). The treatment of mature-green fruit with 1-MCP for 1h, and storage at 12°C for up to 2 weeks prolonged the shelf-life about one week by delaying or reducing the respiration and ethylene production rates, skin colour changes, the loss of organic acids, and softening, with or without a further shelf-life period of 3 days at 20°C. At 7°C, 1-MCP also reduced mature-green fruit weight loss and shrivelling. Extending 1-MCP treatment periods at 20°C to 6 or 12h caused partial and uneven ripeness. Treating fruit in their post-climacteric stage of maturity had little effect on ripening compared with the mature-green stage. 1-MCP increased the respiration rate and/or the ethylene production in certain combinations of advanced harvest maturities and/or unfavourable storage temperatures. Recommendations for maintaining postharvest quality are harvesting at the mature-green stage, treatment with 1μLL -1 of 1-MCP for 1h, and storage at 12°C for up to 2 weeks. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Orjuela-Baquero N.M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Carrillo M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Amazonian populations are characterized by establishing itinerant productive systems called chagras, where roots and tubers play an important role as energy sources due to their diversity. The aim of this research was to characterize the roots and tubers, apart from cassava, used by local communities in two locations of the Colombian Amazon: Vaupés and Amazonas. Both locations have different ethnical groups and soil origins belonging to tertiary and quaternary formations. The tuber and root diversity and related local use knowledge were assessed with non-structured interviews. The identity of the ethnovarieties was assessed by visiting chagras and stubble fields; the collected botanical samples were included in herbarium collections. Three ethnovarieties of roots and tubers were preliminarily characterized with phytochemical analyses, proximate composition, and primary metabolites quantification. Twenty-five ethnovarieties in Vaupés and eighteen in Amazonas (rhizomes, tuberous roots, corms and bulbils) were distributed in 7 families: Araceae, Marantaceae, Heliconiaceae, Zingiberaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Convolvulaceae and Cannaceae, with the first one being the most diverse. For the species Canna indica, Calathea allouia and Maranta ruiziana, the moisture content ranged from 63.9-87.5% and the proximate composition on a dry weight basis was below 9.6% proteins, 8.7% ash and 87.3% carbohydrates. The predominant organic acid was succinic and polysaccharides were the principal component (maximum of one third of the carbohydrate fraction corresponded to mono and disaccharides). Flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids were also detected. C. indica showed an antioxidant capacity. The characterization of the Amazonian ethnovarieties of roots and tubers will became a baseline for reinforcing the regional food sovereignty by developing new root and tuber based products. © ISHS.

Orjuela-Baquero N.M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Exploring the potential uses of Amazonian native starches is the starting point to apply the potential of these native resources. In the future, these starches could reinforce food value supply chains and might be used in developing products for the green markets. However, native Amazonian starches have not been studied and the demand for them is increasing in the local industry. Full characterization is mandatory for registration and labeling before marketing. The starch isolation from Amazonian roots and tubers from Colombia was achieved by stirring, filtrating, decanting and washing. Finally, the isolated starch was dehydrated and homogenized before analysis, and the yield of extraction was assessed. The starch granule morphometry was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Functional properties such as the percentage of apparent amylose content were determined by the colorimetric iodine assay method; the swelling powder, water absorption capability and solubility were also evaluated. The yield of starch extraction ranged from 8.7 to 14.4%, with the rhizome of Maranta ruiziana achieving the highest yield. The starch granules showed ellipsoidal to polyhedral shapes that were: small-sized in M. ruiziana (11 μm), medium-sized in C. allouia (21 μm) and large-sized in C. indica (43 μm). C. indica had a high amylose content of 60.9% and, consequently, the best solubility in water, while the other two starches had a medium to high amylose content around 40%. Due to the high amylose content, the C. indica starch could be of potential use in the plastic, fiber and adhesives industries; while the M. ruiziana and C. allouia starches would be appropriate for the alimentary industry. These results will help in future labeling of the starches for industrial use and promote the sustainable use of Amazonian biodiversity. © ISHS.

Barreto-Silva J.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Barreto-Silva J.S.,National University of Colombia | Cardenas Lopez D.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Duque Montoya A.J.,National University of Colombia
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2014

The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme forests of Amacayacu National Park, and suggest reserve's size as a key element to ensure the conservation of plant diversity at both regional and local levels.

Sterling Armando C.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas Sinchi | Gomez M C.A.,University of the Amazon | Campo J A.A.,University of the Amazon
Revista Colombiana de Entomologia | Year: 2011

In the Colombian Amazon termites attack bare root stumps of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on Heterotermes tenuis termites under laboratory conditions. The concentrations used were 1x10 1, 1x10 3, 3x10 5, 1x10 7 and 3x10 8 conidia/ml and the control (distilled sterile water). The dead insects were cleared with KOH at 10% and mounted on glass slides. Mortality was compared using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the CL 50 and TL 50 were determined. The concentration of 3x10 8 conidia/ml was the most effective (100% of insects eliminated in six days). There were differences found among the six concentrations used in percent survival of H. tenuis (H 5,81=19.4; p < 0.05) and in the time (days) of survival (H 4,60=14.0; p < 0.05). The CL 50 was 9.64 x 10 3 conidia/ml after a time of six days. The TL 50 was three days for the concentration of 3 x 10 8 conidia/ml. Under laboratory conditions M. anisopliae is very effective on H. tenuis, and for this reason its use under natural conditions should be considered in the integrated management of the termites that affect the cultivation of rubber trees in the Amazonian region. This study is the first report on the in vitro biocontrol of H. tenuis in H. brasiliensis.

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