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Echenique R.O.,National University of La Plata | Nunez-Avellaneda M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Duque S.R.,National University of Colombia
Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica | Year: 2014

In this paper 41 taxa belonging to the families coelastraceae, chlorococcaceae, radiococcaceae, palmellaceae, oocystaceae, characiaceae, treubariaceae, botryococcaceae, micractiniaceae and hydrodictyaceae of the order chlorococcales were recorded. the material studied was collected in rivers and lakes from colombian amazon basin. among the total taxa recorded, 20 are new for colombia and 10 are new for the colombian region of the basin. the family best represented in terms of species richness was oocystaceae, with 10 taxa, and the largest number of taxa was found in lakes yahuarcaca (Amazon river). Source

Herrera Y.M.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Gutierrez R.H.,Central University of Venezuela
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Several studies show that some foods like fruits, vegetables and grains have different percentages of antioxidant compounds. Copoazú is a wild cacao from the Sterculiaceae family, with a very close relation to cacao (Theobroma cacao). The copoazú is a neglected species, which has not been characterized enough in order to establish its industrial uses. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) has recently become a tool that improves the extraction process, and it is extensively used in bioactive separation due to operative requirements: short extraction times, low power requirements and high extraction efficiency. Factors such as microwave energy, irradiation time and type of solvent can affect the efficiency of the process. This study aimed to optimize the microwave assisted extraction parameters using a modified standard microwave, to obtain the antioxidant compounds from copoazú dry seeds. Antioxidant compounds were extracted from dry unfermented copoazú seed by orthogonal statistical test L16 (4)4 to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. Several parameters were evaluated: plant material: solventextraction ratio (water); time; power and number of extraction cycles. Antioxidant activity was quantified by the method radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) expressing the results as TEAC. The higher yield was obtained with a plant material:solvent extraction ratio of 1:15, power 300 W, times of more than 10 min and more than 3 extraction cycles. The impact of the variables studied was assessed according to Stepwise Linear Regression; the cycles of extraction had the highest impact on bio active compound extraction while power had the lowest. Source

Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Hernandez M.S.,National University of Colombia
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Our tropics are diverse in vegetal origin species. Some of them, neglected as a result of the conquest history, others little known so far in this XXIst century. Some neotropical cereals, seeds, tubers and roots that were the food base of indigenous communities before the European conquest, were abandoned as a result of conquerors' dispositions and religious issues, and not before the end of the XXth century, they were re-discovered. Quinoa, amaranth, cassava or yams were totally useless during a long time and their potential benefits wasted. Similarly, forest tropical species remained unknown for a long time. New tendencies in health care and environmental sensibility changed this situation and promote little known and/or neglected species to be re used for food and many others industries that are flourishing now. Today, it is possible to find in menu restaurants, as well as in specialized magazines, a great offer of derivate from the tropical diversity and demand for them increases in a fast way. More and more, people are interested in new products which improve life quality, and lead also to environmental sustainability maintenance. As consequence, strategies to improve neglected and little used species involve the creation of a technological platform which combined with innovation can support development and improvement of value chains in tropical regions. Although these little used species represent many challenges for the tropical people, value chains examples increase every day and some advances are remarkable. The tropical region and its diversity is undoubtedly a source of wellbeing not only for growers but also for consumers. Source

Castro J.W.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Gutierrez R.H.,Central University of Venezuela
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Seje is a native palm found in tropical forests. In the Amazon region, the traditional extraction process involves a long cooking process wherein the collected seje fruits stay in hot water until the oil is separated from the mesocarp. The aim of this study was to compare mechanical extraction methods to the traditional one in order to overcome the inefficiency of the process. It was found that the traditional method offered extraction yields between 25-40% (w/w), while the mechanical method at 120 psi and room temperature increased the efficiency of the oil extraction process by 100%. The oil extracted by the mechanical methods was purer and less turbid, with a better nutritional value. The lipid profile includes oleic acid as the principal component (76-78%) and palmitic fatty acid (11.5-13%) as the second, while linolenic and linoleic acids correspond to unsaturated and, more frequently, fatty acids (2.8-3.0%) in addition to omega 3 (0.6%) and omega 6 (2.2%); these results coincide with previous results obtained for seje palm fruits in similar conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon Region. This special composition makes seje oil one of the richest derivatives from South American palm fruits, as well as an ideal complement for special diets and food regimes. In order to include seje oil in food processing protocols, seje oil based dressings were evaluated with different oil percentages. The samples were analyzed for aroma, taste, texture, color and viscosity by a sensory tasting panel; it was found that the dressings with less than 20% seje oil were well accepted by the tasting panel during the sensory essays. Source

Cucaita N.A.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,National University of Colombia | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones Cientificas | Gutierrez R.H.,Central University of Venezuela
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum) is one of the semi-domesticated arboreal fruit species originating from the Amazon region. This fruit has been studied due to the fact that its pulp is used in derivatives for food industries, for example juices, jams and preserves. In addition, Copoazú seeds can be used in a way similar to that of cocoa seeds in chocolate or analog derivative production. Despite the potential use of copoazú seeds for cacao (Theobroma cacao) chocolate derivative production, the process has been poorly characterized. The technological potential of liquor from fermented, dried and roasted cocoa seeds and copoazú seeds was compared using the production protocol of a chocolate-like product. Cocoa and copoazú liquors were used as raw materials and submitted to a technological standard protocol for chocolate making. The principal differences between the copoazú and cocoa liquors included particle size, cooling time and humidity conditions, with impacts on the crystallization of fats in the derivative and on the sensory, physical and physicochemical quality of the chocolates; the principal characteristics in the processes were chocolate solidification and adherence to a mold surface. Sensory, physical and physicochemical properties of the product were used to establish technological conditions of the copoazú seed operation process. Copoazú may be used as a raw material for the development of chocolate-like products and in dark chocolate applications. Although the sensory properties differed from those of classic chocolate products, it is possible to adopt a standard technological process for fermented copoazú seeds in order to produce well flavored derivatives. Source

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