Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones

Bogotá, Colombia

Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones

Bogotá, Colombia
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Diaz R.O.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Orjuela-Baquero N.M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Carrillo M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Asai is a tropical palm widely distributed in the Amazon and its fruits have a high antioxidant capacity and are also a source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. The generation of asai value chains demands the standardization of fresh fruit quality for processing and the establishment of a postharvest system that allows quality preservation and offers regulation. In order to evaluate fruit quality trait evolution during postharvest storage, asai fruits from the Guaviare Department (Colombia) were collected in three successive maturity stages: green, half-ripe and ripe; and stored at 20±2°C. Respiration rate, ethylene production, fresh weight loss and skin color were measured daily. Weight loss increased as time passed, reaching more than 10% on day 6 of storage with no significant difference between the maturity stages. Ethylene production was not detected, nevertheless, skin color changed from green to purple and the respiratory rate increased (lower production in green fruits), suggesting a climacteric pattern.


Orjuela-Baquero N.M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Diaz R.O.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Cocona is an Amazonian fruit with applications in the agri-food, cosmetic and nutraceutical industries. To preserve cocona quality, some postharvest-decay delaying treatments were evaluated. Cold temperature + waxing treatments were assessed in three morphotypes (small-rounded, elliptical and giant) that were collected in the mature state (yellow color on 75% of total fruit surface) in the Guaviare Department, Colombia. A Hortitec® wax (water solution 1: 3 v/v) was applied and air dried. Fruits were stored at low temperatures (10±2°C at 85% relative humidity RH) and at room temperature for the control (20±2°C at 75% RH). CO2 and ethylene emission, weight loss and color were tracked every two days for two weeks. Low temperatures delayed cocona senescence by up to 2 to 4 times as compared with room temperature, combined with respiratory and weight loss reduction for the three morphotypes. The small-rounded morphotype was the most sensitive to quality losses and exhibited a higher daily fresh weight loss rate while color didn't exhibit differences between treatments. Hortitec® coating didn't improve storage performance of cocona fruits. CO2 production and an undetectable ethylene emission suggest a non-typical behavior of cocona for at least two of the morphotypes. The small-rounded morphotype showed an slight climacteric pattern that was not accompanied by a peak of ethylene production or color changes. Low temperature storage is a feasible treatment if scaled to the local conditions of the Colombian Amazon region, which could improve cocona marketability.


Ruiz A.F.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Cardona J.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Carrillo M.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Cocona is a wild berry from the Amazonian river region with interesting properties for human wellness and nutrition. However, it also suffers serious postharvest losses as occurs in other fruit from the Solanaceae family. This is particularly true during low temperature storage as a result of chilling injury and associated decay. In this study, three ecotypes of cocona ('Ovoid', 'Topiro' and 'Small Round') were tested for their physiological behaviour and sensitivity to chilling injury at 3, 12 or 20°C. At 20°C the ecotype 'Topiro' showed a climacteric ripening pattern while 'Small Round' showed a non-climacteric pattern and the 'Ovoid' ecotype showed an increased respiration rate at the end of storage accompanied by an unclear physiological behaviour. 'Topiro' and 'Ovoid' revealed skin colour changes that were measurable by hue angle determination. The three ecotypes developed chilling injury symptoms during storage including soaking and pitting (only at 3°C) and watery breakdown. They also suffered a severe decrease in ascorbic acid content, particularly 'Ovoid' and 'Small Round' fruits. Flesh softening and pitting were the most limiting quality drawbacks for 'Ovoid' fruit during storage, of which these were affected to a higher extent than the other two ecotypes tested. Decay in the post-storage shelf life periods was particularly noticeable after storage at 3°C in 'Ovoid'. Storage at 12°C reduced organic acid and sugar losses but allowed normal fruit ripening during a post-storage shelf-life at 20°C. The storage of cocona at 12°C is recommended irrespectively of the ecotype tested because of the absence of chilling injury and flesh decay, so that overall fruit quality is maintained better.


Barrera J.A.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Garcia A.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Vargas G.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Photosynthetic light response curves for Araza (Eugenia stipitata) leaves were studied under four different environments in the south of the Colombian Amazon. The environments represented the four predominant physiographies of the Amazonian landscape: hilly, high terrace, low terrace and river plain. To characterize the leaf photosynthetic response curve to the photosynthetically active radiation in each environment, measurements of CO2 exchange were made with a portable system on leaves exposed to photosynthetically active radiation values of 0-2001 μmol m-2 s-1 of photons. Assimilation curves were adjusted using nonlinear regression. The response rate of assimilation or photosynthesis to photon flux PPDF described a curvilinear progression, consisting of two phases: i) an initial linear increase in the rate of assimilation; ii) a gradual deceleration in the rate of assimilation with increasing quantity of light until a plateau (maximum rate of photosynthesis or assimilation) was reached. We found different values in the maximum photosynthesis, compensation point of the specie in the different environments, although the apparent quantum yield was very similar in all cases.


Barrera J.A.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Castro S.Y.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Photosynthetic light response curves in camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) leaves were studied in three stages of plant growth. The evaluation was carried out during the dry and humid (part of the time flooded) season in the south of the Colombian Amazon, by identifying three stages of growth corresponding to juvenile plants, young adult plants (in production) and adult plants. To characterize the leaf photosynthetic response curve to the photosynthetically active radiation in each stage of growth, measurements of CO2 were made with a portable system IRGA in plants exposed to photosynthetically active radiation values of 0-1887 μmo m-2 s-1 of photons. Assimilation curves were adjusted by the nonlinear regression method. The response rate of assimilation to photon flux described a curvilinear progression consisting of an initial linear increase in the rate of assimilation as the amount of light increased, and a subsequent gradual deceleration in the rate of assimilation as the amount of light increased further. The maximum apparent quantum yield of the species was similar for the young adult and juvenile shrubs, while maximum photosynthesis was observed at the young adult stage.


Hernandez C.,University of the Amazon | Hernandez C.,National University of Colombia | Carrillo M.P.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Barrera J.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Copoazú fruit [Theobroma grandiflorum wild ex Spreng (Schum)] is an ellipsoid amazonic drupe from the Sterculiaceae family closely related to endemic cacao. The copoazú sour pulp identifies this fruit that can be used in multiple applications. Fruit harvest is not simple because fruit external appearance does not change much during development. This work was carried out in order to establish some growth pattern and indexes to assist fruit harvesting. The period between fruit set and full ripening of copoazú fruit grown in the Colombian Amazonia was 160±2 days. A complex growth pattern with three stages of sigmoid growth was monitored. The longitudinal and equatorial traits of the fruit fitted a logistic model that was identified at tissue level as follows: S1, involving cellular division and expansion during the first 60 days of growth; S2, maximum fruit growth, during which cellular expansion took place (79 days more), and a final S3 state of 25 days more to reach physiological maturity. After this time, the fruit can be harvested when the abscission layer increased. The respiratory pattern of copoazú fruit during development was climacteric, with a maximum respiration rate after detaching the fruit of around 160 mg kg-1 h-1 of CO2 concomitant with a peak of ethylene production at 20°C and 75% R.H. A total soluble solids value of 14°Brix, matched with an increase in sugars and ascorbic acid content, and a decrease in titratable acidity. Citric acid was the main organic acid in the edible pulp and ascorbic acid was present in a moderate concentration (11 g per 100 g fresh pulp). The days after fruit set combined with pulp color and TSS content around 11% can be recommended as harvest indices for copoazú fruit.


Carrillo M.P.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez-Gomez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Barrera J.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Martinez O.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Fernandez-Trujillo J.P.,Technical University of Cartagena
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In the amazonian state of Caquetá (Colombia), more than 365 families have included arazá as part of the agroforestry production in conjuntion with rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). The potential production of this fruit in the area is aproximately 100 t, distributed in two or three harvests per year. During the last three years arazá has been introduced in the local markets through a promoting campain to increase awareness with consumers. With the purpose of envigorating the comercialization and consumption in Colombia, arazá fruits were harvest green and ripe, with a field selection, followed by a treatment of 1-MCP (1000 nl L -1) for 1 h at room temperature, 27±3°C. The fruit were then packed in plastic totes of 8 kg (treatment E1) or in corrugated board boxes (treatment E2). The fruit were brought to the laboratory and were stored at 12±1°C. The objective of this study was to identify the critical points of the commercialization of fresh arazá, according to the two used packages, and with the 1-MCP treatment. Physiological characteristics and quality variables were evaluated during the 10 days duration of the distribution and commercialization chain. The corrugated board boxes reduced the mechanical damages in the fruit. Fruits in both packages reached 75% change to green/yellow in 10 days. However, the fruit losses were reduced by 32% with the corrugated boxes in comparison with conventional use of the plastic totes. The 1-MCP treatment in combination with this alternative box kept nutritional components (organic acids) and other attributes associated with quality for a longer time which is the reason why this was recommended for local marketing.


Carrillo M.P.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Hernandez M.S.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Cardona J.E.C.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | Barrera J.,Instituto Amazonico Of Investigaciones | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K.) is a shrub present in flooded zones of the Amazonian. The fruits of this plant have a high nutritional content, notably due to the high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidants. To assure utilization of the fruit it is key to identify the optimal handling and storage conditions. This study aimed to optimize the commercialization chain of camu camu, with the support of the Lumber Association of Tarapacá and the women association of Tarapacá. Camu camu fruits with turning color and fully ripe color were harvested in Tarapacá (Amazonas-Colombia) and transported via air to Bogotá. The fruit in both maturity stages (turning color and fully ripe) were stored at (6, 10 and 20°C, all at 85% relative humidity), evaluating its physiological behavior and quality for 4 days (fully ripe) and 8 days (turning color). The fruit was found to have a climacteric pattern. For both maturity stages, the lower temperature (6°C) preserved for longer time the vitamin C and the retention of color, as well as reducing weight loss and respiration rate. However, at this low temperature fruits showed chilling injury. It was observed that a fruit at the turning color and storage at 10°C, the shelf life is extended and the retention of nutrients is prolonged (vitamin C and sugars).

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