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Boyania colombiana Humberto Mend. (Melastomataceae) is described and illustrated from an area of sandy soils in the department of Caquet, Colombia. It is a disjunct species in a monotypic genus known from the Guayana Shield in Guyana. Boyania colombiana is distinguished from B. ayangannae Wurdack by the shape of the leaf base, the petiole longer than 2 cm, the shortened internodes, and the absence of a dorsal connective appendix. Boyania colombiana is compared to other genera of the tribe Bertolonieae, and the generic position of the new species is discussed. © 2010 Missouri Botanical Garden. Source


The hylid frog fauna of the Colombian lowlands east of the Andes consists of 72 or 73 species (one identified only tentatively), comprising about 40% of all frog species of that region and 10% of the total frog fauna known for the country. Most lowland hylids reproduce in lentic waters and few species reproduce in sluggish streams, treeholes, and bromeliads. The tadpoles of 41 species are illustrated in this study, including eight previously unknown and three others never before illustrated. Source


Gonzalez C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Paz A.,Instituto Alexander von Humboldt | Ferro C.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud
Acta Tropica | Year: 2013

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by the trypanosomatid parasite Leishmania infantum (=Leishmania chagasi), and is epidemiologically relevant due to its wide geographic distribution, the number of annual cases reported and the increase in its co-infection with HIV. Two vector species have been incriminated in the Americas: Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi. In Colombia, L. longipalpis is distributed along the Magdalena River Valley while L. evansi is only found in the northern part of the Country. Regarding the epidemiology of the disease, in Colombia the incidence of VL has decreased over the last few years without any intervention being implemented. Additionally, changes in transmission cycles have been reported with urban transmission occurring in the Caribbean Coast. In Europe and North America climate change seems to be driving a latitudinal shift of leishmaniasis transmission. Here, we explored the spatial distribution of the two known vector species of L. infantum in Colombia and projected its future distribution into climate change scenarios to establish the expansion potential of the disease. An updated database including L. longipalpis and L. evansi collection records from Colombia was compiled. Ecological niche models were performed for each species using the Maxent software and 13 Worldclim bioclimatic coverages. Projections were made for the pessimistic CSIRO A2 scenario, which predicts the higher increase in temperature due to non-emission reduction, and the optimistic Hadley B2 Scenario predicting the minimum increase in temperature. The database contained 23 records for L. evansi and 39 records for L. longipalpis, distributed along the Magdalena River Valley and the Caribbean Coast, where the potential distribution areas of both species were also predicted by Maxent. Climate change projections showed a general overall reduction in the spatial distribution of the two vector species, promoting a shift in altitudinal distribution for L. longipalpis and confining L. evansi to certain regions in the Caribbean Coast. Altitudinal shifts have been reported for cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors in Colombia and Peru. Here, we predict the same outcome for VL vectors in Colombia. Changes in spatial distribution patterns could be affecting local abundances due to climatic pressures on vector populations thus reducing the incidence of human cases. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Gonzalez-Alvarado A.,Instituto Alexander von Humboldt | Vaz-De-Mello F.Z.,Federal University of Mato Grosso
Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France | Year: 2015

The subgenus Hybomidium includes 13 species and one subspecies, of which four are new: Deltochilum (Hybomidium) bezdeki n. sp., D. (H.) carrilloi n. sp., D. (H.) molanoi n. sp., and D. (H.) louzadai n. sp. D. sublaeve Bates 1887 new status and D. panamensis Howden 1966 n. status are elevated from subspecies to species. The synonymies between D. icarus (Olivier 1789) and D. guildingii (Westwood 1835), and between D. orbignyi (Blanchard 1846) and D. chalcea (Buquet 1844) are invalidated, and the synonymy between D. guildingii and D. chalcea new synonymy is proposed; D. amazonicum Bates 1887 is proposed as subspecies of D. orbignyi (D. orbignyi amazonicum n. status). Lectotypes for D. amazonicum, D. chalcea and D. icarus are designated. Descriptions or (re)descriptions, diagnoses, remarks, figures of external morphology and male genitalia, examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. A key to the species of the subgenus is presented in two languages (English and Spanish). © 2015 Société entomologique de France. Source


Cardenas J.C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Rodriguez L.A.,Instituto Alexander von Humboldt | Johnson N.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute
Environment and Development Economics | Year: 2011

The collective action problem around water use and management involves solving both the problems of provision and appropriation. Cooperation in the provision can be affected by the rival nature of appropriation and the asymmetries in access. We report the results of two field experiments conducted in Colombia and Kenya. The irrigation game was used to explore the provision and appropriation decisions under asymmetric or sequential appropriation, complemented by a voluntary contribution mechanism experiment which looks at provision decisions under symmetric appropriation. The overall results were consistent with the patterns of previous studies: the zero contribution hypotheses is rejected whereas the most effective institution to increase cooperation was face-to-face communication, although we find that communication works much more effectively in Colombia than in Kenya. We also find that the asymmetric appropriation did reduce cooperation, though the magnitude of the social loss and the effectiveness of alternative institutional options varied across sites. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2010. Source

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