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Pereira A.P.B.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Favre T.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Galvao A.F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Beck L.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | And 2 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

School-aged children (6-15 years) from the endemic area of Pernambuco were evaluated both as a target group for and an indicator of schistosomiasis control in the community. Parasitological data were drawn from baseline stool surveys of whole populations that were obtained to diagnose Schistosomamansoni infection. Nineteen representative localities were selected for assessing the prevalence of schistosomiasis among individuals in the following age groups: 0-5, 6-15, 16-25, 26-40 and 41-80 years. For each locality, the prevalence in each age group was compared to that of the overall population using contingency table analysis. To select a reference group, the operational difficulties of conducting residential surveys were considered. School-aged children may be considered to be the group of choice as the reference group for the overall population for the following reasons: (i) the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this age group had the highest correlation with the prevalence in the overall population (r = 0.967), (ii) this age group is particularly vulnerable to infection and plays an important role in parasite transmission and (iii) school-aged children are the main target of the World Health Organization in terms of helminth control. The Schistosomiasis Control Program should consider school-aged children both as a reference group for assessing the need for intervention at the community level and as a target group for integrated health care actions of the Unified Health System that are focused on high-risk groups. Source

Galvao A.F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Favre T.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Guimaraes R.J.P.S.,Institute Pesquisas Rene Rachou Fiocruz | Pereira A.P.B.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | And 6 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2010

Praziquantel chemotherapy has been the focus of the Schistosomiasis Control Program in Brazil for the past two decades. Nevertheless, information on the impact of selective chemotherapy against Schistosoma mansoni infection under the conditions confronted by the health teams in endemic municipalities remains scarce. This paper compares the spatial pattern of infection before and after treatment with either a 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg dose of praziquantel by determining the intensity of spatial cluster among patients at 180 and 360 days after treatment. The spatial-temporal distribution of egg-positive patients was analysed in a Geographic Information System using the kernel smoothing technique. While all patients became egg-negative after 21 days, 17.9% and 30.9% reverted to an egg-positive condition after 180 and 360 days, respectively. Both the prevalence and intensity of infection after treatment were significantly lower in the 60 mg/kg than in the 40 mg/kg treatment group. The higher intensity of the kernel in the 40 mg/kg group compared to the 60 mg/kg group, at both 180 and 360 days, reflects the higher number of reverted cases in the lower dose group. Auxiliary, preventive measures to control transmission should be integrated with chemotherapy to achieve a more enduring impact. Source

Wanderley M.I.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Saraiva K.L.A.,State University of Paraiba | Cesar Vieira J.S.B.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Peixoto C.A.,Instituto Aggeu Magalhaes Fiocruz | Udrisar D.P.,Federal University of Pernambuco
International Journal of Experimental Pathology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of maternal exposure to Panax ginseng extract (GE) on the prenatal dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced increase in testosterone production by isolated Leydig cells in adult rats. Pregnant rats were treated with (i) GE (200 mg/kg) or vehicle on days 10-21; (ii) DEXA (100 μg/kg) or vehicle on days 14-21; or (iii) a combination of GE plus DEXA at the same doses and with the same regimen. Testosterone production was induced either by the activator of protein kinase A (dbcAMP) or substrates of steroidogenesis [22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22(R)-OH-C)] and pregnenolone. The capacity of rat Leydig cells exposed to DEXA to synthesize testosterone induced by dbcAMP, 22(R)-OH-C or pregnenolone was increased in comparison with the control group. Combined exposure to DEXA + GE prevented the effect of DEXA on the responsiveness of Leydig cells to all inductors of testosterone synthesis, whereas GE alone did not modify the response to inductors. No modifications in testosterone production were observed under basal conditions. StAR immunoexpression in Leydig cells was not modified by prenatal exposure to DEXA, GE or DEXA + GE. P450scc and glucocorticoid receptor immunoexpression was higher in offspring exposed to DEXA in comparison with the control group. This increased expression was prevented by combined treatment with DEXA + GE. The present findings demonstrate that GE is capable of reversing the effect of DEXA on testosterone synthesis by rat Leydig cells. © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology. Source

De Arruda Junior E.R.,Federal University of Paraiba | Lacerda H.R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Lacerda H.R.,University of Pernambuco | Moura L.C.R.V.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 9 more authors.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia | Year: 2010

Background: Hypertension (HBP) is modifiable risk factor, whose control may reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and describe the characteristics of patients with hypertension infected by HIV/AIDS. Methods: A cross-sectional study aligned to a cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study considered hypertension at levels ≥ 140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive drugs and pre-hypertension at levels > 120/80 mmHg. Results: Out of 958 patients, 388 (40.5%) were normotensive, 325 (33.9%) were pre-hypertensive, and 245 (25.6%) were hypertensive. Out of these 245 patients, 172 (70.2%) were aware of the fact there they were hypertensive, and 36 (14.8%) had blood pressure controlled. Sixty-two (62) patients (54.4%) were diagnosed with hypertension after HIV diagnosis. Lipodystrophy occurred in 95 (46.1%) patients; overweight/obesity in 129 (52.7%). Use of antiretrovirals occurred in 184 (85.9%), 89 (41.6%) with protease inhibitors (PI) and 95 (44.4%) without PI. Out of these patients, 74.7 used antivirals > 24 months. Age, family history of hypertension, waist circumference, body mass index and triglyceride levels were higher among hypertensive patients. Time of HIV infection, CD4 count, viral load, time and type of antiretroviral regimen were similar in hypertensive and prehypertensive patients. Conclusion: The high frequency of uncontrolled hypertensive patients and cardiovascular risks in HIV-infected patients point out to the need for preventive and therapeutic measures against hypertension in this group. Source

Vasconcelos R.H.T.,Instituto Aggeu Magalhaes Fiocruz | Amaral F.N.,Instituto Aggeu Magalhaes Fiocruz | Cavalcanti M.G.A.M.,University of Pernambuco | Silva E.D.,Bio Manguinhos Fiocruz | And 3 more authors.
Human Immunology | Year: 2010

In the chronic phase of Chagas disease, individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi may be asymptomatic or may present cardiac and/or digestive complications. Our aim here was to analyze the relationship between the presence of specific immunoglobulin A antibodies and the different chronic clinical forms of Chagas disease using two recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi, cytoplasmatic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen. The association of this immunoglobulin isotype with the digestive and cardio-digestive forms of the disease determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, strongly suggests that IgA antibodies against these recombinant antigens of T. cruzi can be used as an immunological marker of the digestive alterations caused by Chagas disease. The tests performed in this study show that it is possible to differentiate digestive forms of Chagas disease. The knowledge provided by these results may help physicians to manage early alterations in the digestive tract of patients with the indeterminate or cardiac forms of Chagas disease. Prospective studies, however, with follow-up of the patients that presenting with high levels of immunoglobulin A against cytoplasmatic repetitive antigen and flagellar repetitive antigen recombinant antigens, need to be conducted to confirm this hypothesis. © 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source

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