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Wu Z.,Kyushu University | Yu J.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhu A.,Institution of Geriatric Qinghai Provincial Hospital | Nakanishi H.,Kyushu University
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2016

As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. © 2016 Zhou Wu et al. Source

Okada R.,Kyushu University | Wu Z.,Kyushu University | Zhu A.,Institution of Geriatric Qinghai Provincial Hospital | Ni J.,Kyushu University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Recent evidence suggests that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathological changes in patients with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) and lysosomal storage diseases. In order to examine the possible increase in the permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and resultant infiltration of PBMCs due to cathepsin D (CatD) deficiency, a process underlying the onset of congenital NCL, we examined structural changes in brain vessels in CatD-/- mice. Consequently, the mean diameter of the brain vessels in the cerebral cortex on postnatal day 24 (P24) was significantly larger in CatD-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, the mean number of brain pericytes in CatD-/- mice began to decline significantly on P16 and almost disappeared on P24, and oxidative DNA damage was first detected in brain pericytes on P12. Examinations with electron microscopy revealed that brain pericytes were laden with dense granular bodies, cytoplasmic vacuoles and lipid droplets. The infiltration of PBMCs characterized by segmented nucleus laden with dense granular bodies was also noted in the cerebral cortex of CatD-/- mice. When primary cultured microglia prepared from enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing transgenic rats were injected into the common carotid artery, GFP-positive microglia were detected in the brain parenchyma of CatD-/-, but not wild-type, mice. Moreover, pepstatin A, a specific aspartic protease inhibitor, induced mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the isolated brain pericytes, which decreased the cell viability. These observations suggest that increased lysosomal storage due to CatD deficiency causes oxidative damage in brain pericytes, subsequently resulting in an increased vessel diameter, enhanced permeability of the BBB and the infiltration of PBMCs. Therefore, protecting brain pericytes against lysosomal storage-induced oxidative stress may represent an alternative treatment strategy for congenital NCL. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zhu A.,Institution of Geriatric Qinghai Provincial Hospital | Wu Z.,Kyushu University | Meng J.,Kyushu University | McGeer P.L.,University of British Columbia | And 3 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2015

We previously found that Ratanasampil (RNSP), a traditional Tibetan medicine, improves the cognitive function of mild-to-moderate AD patients living at high altitude, as well as learning and memory in an AD mouse model (Tg2576); however, mechanism underlying the effects of RNSP is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanisms of RNSP on oxidative stress-induced neuronal toxicity using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment with RNSP significantly ameliorated the hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner (up to 60 μg/mL). Furthermore, RNSP significantly reduced the H2O2-induced upregulation of 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG, the oxidative DNA damage marker) but significantly reversed the expression of repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) from H2O2 associated (100 μM) downregulation. Moreover, RNSP significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) in SH-SY5Y cells. These observations strongly suggest that RNSP may protect the oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage that occurs through the properties of various antioxidants and inhibit the activation of MAPKs. We thus provide the principle molecular mechanisms of the effects of RNSP and indicate its role in the prevention and clinical management of AD. Copyright © 2015 Aiqin Zhu et al. Source

Wu Z.,Kyushu University | Zhu A.,Institution of Geriatric Qinghai Provincial Hospital | Takayama F.,Kyushu University | Okada R.,Kyushu University | And 4 more authors.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity | Year: 2013

Hypoxia has been recently proposed as a neuroinflammatogen, which drives microglia to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α; (TNF-α;), and IL-6. Considering the fact that propolis has hepatoprotective, antitumor, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects, propolis may have protective effects against the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses. In this study, propolis (50 g/mL) was found to significantly inhibit the hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, TNF-α;, and IL-6, by MG6 microglia following hypoxic exposure (1% O 2, 24 h). Furthermore, propolis significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and the activation of nuclear factor-B (NF-B) in microglia. Moreover, systemic treatment with propolis (8.33 mg/kg, 2 times/day, i.p.) for 7 days significantly suppressed the microglial expression of IL-1β, TNF-α;, IL-6, and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, a biomarker for oxidative damaged DNA, in the somatosensory cortex of mice subjected to hypoxia exposure (10% O2, 4 h). These observations indicate that propolis suppresses the hypoxia-induced neuroinflammatory responses through inhibition of the NF-B activation in microglia. Furthermore, increased generation of ROS from the mitochondria is responsible for the NF-B activation. Therefore, propolis may be beneficial in preventing hypoxia-induced neuroinflammation. © 2013 Zhou Wu et al. Source

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