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Kang D.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Tao X.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Liao M.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Li J.,Institute for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: We assessed the effectiveness of an integrated individual, community, and structural intervention to reduce risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods. The integration individual, community, and structural intervention was implemented from 2004 to 2009 in six counties of Shandong Province. Post-intervention cross-sectional surveys were conducted in six intervention counties and 10 control counties. Results: Of 3326 female sex workers were recruited and analyzed in the post-intervention survey with 1157 from intervention sites and 2169 from control sites. No HIV positive was found in both intervention and control counties. The rate of syphilis was 0.17% for intervention sites and 1.89% for control sites (OR = 11.1, 95% CI: 2.7, 46.1). After adjusted for age, marital status, education, economic condition, recruitment venues, the rates of condom use in the last sex with clients(AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.9, 3.8), with regular sex partners(AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and consistent condom use in the last month with clients (AOR = 3.3; 95% CI: 2.6, 4.1) and regular sex partners (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites. The proportion of participants correctly answered at least six out of eight HIV-related questions (83.3%) in intervention sites is significant higher than that (21.9%) in control sites (AOR = 24.7; 95% CI: 2.5, 42.7), the five indicators related to HIV-related intervention services ever received in the last year including HIV testing(AOR = 4.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 6.7), STD examination and/or treatment(AOR = 5.1; 95% CI: 4.2, 6.4), free condom(AOR = 20.3; 95% CI: 14.3, 28.9), peer education(AOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 3.5, 5.4), education materials(AOR = 19.8; 95%CI: 13.1, 29.8) were significantly higher in intervention sites than that in control sites, the participants in the intervention sites are more likely to seek medical treatment when they had any disorders (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 2.5, 4.2). Conclusion: This study found that the integrated individual, community, and structural intervention showed positive impact in reducing HIV and STI risks among FSWs. © 2013 Kang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Liao M.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Wang M.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | Shen X.,Shandong University | Huang P.,Institution for AIDS STD Control and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: To assess the correlates for bisexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: A cross-sectional survey among MSM was conducted in 2011 to provide demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, and services in Jinan, Qingdao, and Yantai of Shandong Province of China. Results: Of 1230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged <35 years, and 47.2% received college or higher education. There were 28.6% MSM who reported to be married or cohabitating or ever had sex with woman in the past 6 months (P6M). 74.5% had ≥6 HIV-related knowledge score. The average total score of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitude was 37.4±4.4(standard deviation). Bisexual behavior was independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.1, 95% CI:1.0-1.1), older age (AOR = 1.2, 95%CI:1.1-1.2), and lower HIV-related knowledge score(AOR = 1.6, 95% CI:1.2-2.2). HIV knowledge score ≥6 was independently associated with lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.3, 95%CI:1.2-1.3), less bisexual behaviors(AOR = 0.6, 95%CI:0.5-0.9), ever received a test for HIV in the past 12 months (P12M) (AOR = 3.2, 95%CI:2.3-4.5), college or higher level education(AOR = 1.9, 95%CI:1.4-2.6), consistent condom use with men in P6M(AOR=6.9, 95%CI:4.6-10.6), recruited from internet or HIV testing sites(AOR = 11.2, 95%CI:8.0-16.1) and bars, night clubs, or tea houses(AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.7-4.8). Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with bisexual behaviors(Aβ = 0.9, 95%CI:0.4-1.4), lower HIV-related knowledge score(Aβ = 3.6, 95%CI:3.0-4.1), the number of male sex partners in the past week ≥2(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:1.0-1.9), unprotected male anal sex in P6M(Aβ = 1.0, 95%CI:0.5-1.6), and inversely associated with ever received HIV test(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0.8-2.0) and peer education in P12M(Aβ = 1.4, 95% CI:0.9-1.9). Conclusion: HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes were associated with bisexual behaviors, low HIV testing rate, lower HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors. This study called for innovative programs that would reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes and bisexual behaviors and improve the uptake of prevention service among MSM. © 2015 Liao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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