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Yang H.,Fudan University | Lu P.,Pennsylvania State University | Wang Y.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Institutes of Biomedical science
Plant Journal | Year: 2011

Meiosis is essential for eukaryotic sexual reproduction, with two consecutive rounds of nuclear divisions, allowing production of haploid gametes. Information regarding the meiotic transcriptome should provide valuable clues about global expression patterns and detailed gene activities. Here we used RNA sequencing to explore the transcriptome of a single plant cell type, the Arabidopsis male meiocyte, detecting the expression of approximately 20 000 genes. Transcription of introns of >400 genes was observed, suggesting previously unannotated exons. More than 800 genes may be preferentially expressed in meiocytes, including known meiotic genes. Of the 3378 Pfam gene families in the Arabidopsis genome, 3265 matched meiocyte-expressed genes, and 18 gene families were over-represented in male meiocytes, including transcription factor and other regulatory gene families. Expression was detected for many genes thought to encode meiosis-related proteins, including MutS homologs (MSHs), kinesins and ATPases. We identified more than 1000 orthologous gene clusters that are also expressed in meiotic cells of mouse and fission yeast, including 503 single-copy genes across the three organisms, with a greater number of gene clusters shared between Arabidopsis and mouse than either share with yeast. Interestingly, approximately 5% transposable element genes were apparently transcribed in male meiocytes, with a positive correlation to the transcription of neighboring genes. In summary, our RNA-Seq transcriptome data provide an overview of gene expression in male meiocytes and invaluable information for future functional studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Jin Y.,Fudan University | Yang H.,Fudan University | Wei Z.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Plant | Year: 2013

Drought affects rice reproduction and results in severe yield loss. The developmental defects and changes of gene regulation network in reproductive tissues under drought stress are largely unknown. In this study, rice plants subjected to reproductive stage drought stress were examined for floral development and transcriptomic changes. The results showed that male fertility was dramatically affected, with differing pollen viability in flowers of the same panicle due to aberrant anther development under water stress. Examination of local starch distribution revealed that starch accumulated abnormally in terms of position and abundance in anthers of water-stressed plants. Microarray analysis using florets of different sizes identified >1000 drought-responsive genes, most of which were specifically regulated in only one or two particular sizes of florets, suggesting developmental stage-dependent responses to drought. Genes known to be involved in tapetum and/or microspore development, cell wall formation or expansion, and starch synthesis were found more frequently among the genes affected by drought than genome average, while meiosis and MADS-box genes were less frequently affected. In addition, pathways related to gibberellin acid signaling and abscisic acid catabolism were reprogrammed by drought. Our results strongly suggest interactions between reproductive development, phytohormone signaling, and carbohydrate metabolism in water-stressed plants. Source

Cheng F.-C.,Stem Cell Center | Sheu M.-L.,Institutes of Biomedical science | Su H.-L.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen Y.-J.,Taichung Veterans General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Object. Mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from bone marrow involved in the process of peripheral nerve regeneration occurs mostly through deposits of CD34+ cells. Treadmill exercise, with either differing intensity or duration, has been shown to increase axon regeneration and sprouting, but the effect of mobilization of HPCs on peripheral nerve regeneration due to treadmill exercise has not yet been elucidated. Methods. Peripheral nerve injury was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by crushing the left sciatic nerve using a vessel clamp. The animals were categorized into 2 groups: those with and without treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 minutes per day for 7 days). Cytospin and flow cytometry were used to determine bone marrow progenitor cell density and distribution. Neurobehavioral analysis, electrophysiological study, and regeneration marker expression were investigated at 1 and 3 weeks after exercise. The accumulation of HPCs, immune cells, and angiogenesis factors in injured nerves was determined. A separate chimeric mice study was conducted to assess CD34+ cell distribution according to treadmill exercise group. Results. Treadmill exercise significantly promoted nerve regeneration. Increased Schwann cell proliferation, increased neurofilament expression, and decreased Schwann cell apoptosis were observed 7 days after treadmill exercise. Elevated expression of S100 and Luxol fast blue, as well as decreased numbers of vacuoles, were identified in the crushed nerve 3 weeks after treadmill exercise. Significantly increased numbers of mononuclear cells, particularly CD34+ cells, were induced in bone marrow after treadmill exercise. The deposition of CD34+ cells was abolished by bone marrow irradiation. In addition, deposits of CD34+ cells in crushed nerves paralleled the elevated expressions of von Willebrand factor, isolectin B4, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Conclusions. Bone marrow HPCs, especially CD34+ cells, were able to be mobilized by low-intensity treadmill exercise, and this effect paralleled the significant expression of angiogenesis factors. Treadmill exercise stimulation of HPC mobilization during peripheral nerve regeneration could be used as a therapy in human beings. © AANS, 2013. Source

Guo C.,Fudan University | Ge X.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Institutes of Biomedical science
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Drought is one of the critical factors limiting reproductive yields of rice and other crops globally. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying reproductive development under drought stress in rice. To explore the potential gene function for improving rice reproductive development under drought, a drought induced gene, Oryza sativa Drought-Induced LTP (OsDIL) encoding a lipid transfer protein, was identified from our microarray data and selected for further study. OsDIL was primarily expressed in the anther and mainly responsive to abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, NaCl, and stress-related plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Compared with wild type, the OsDIL-overexpressing transgenic rice plants were more tolerant to drought stress during vegetative development and showed less severe tapetal defects and fewer defective anther sacs when treated with drought at the reproductive stage. The expression levels of the drought-responsive genes RD22, SODA1, bZIP46 and POD, as well as the ABA synthetic gene ZEP1 were up-regulated in the OsDIL-overexpression lines but the ABA degradation gene ABAOX3 was down-regulated. Moreover, overexpression of OsDIL lessened the down-regulation by drought of anther developmental genes (OsC4, CYP704B2 and OsCP1), providing a mechanism supporting pollen fertility under drought. Overexpression of OsDIL significantly enhanced drought resistance in transgenic rice during reproductive development, while showing no phenotypic changes or yield penalty under normal conditions. Therefore, OsDIL is an excellent candidate gene for genetic improvement of crop yield in adaption to unfavorable environments. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Ge X.,Fudan University | Chang F.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Fudan University | Ma H.,Institutes of Biomedical science | Ma H.,Pennsylvania State University
Current Biology | Year: 2010

Plant reproductive development is a complex process with diploid and haploid phases, including male and female organogenesis, meiosis, gametogenesis, pollination and fertilization. A number of regulatory mechanisms control both diploid and haploid cell division and differentiation, especially cell-cell signaling pathways mediated by receptor-linked protein kinases with prominent roles in early male development, and hormonal signaling pathways crucial for later events in male and female reproductive development. Furthermore, transcriptional networks control the proper formation of specific cell layers and embryo sac cell specification. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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