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Capolla S.,University of Trieste | Mezzaroba N.,University of Trieste | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | Tripodo C.,University of Palermo | And 15 more authors.
Nano Research | Year: 2016

Current approaches for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have greatly improved the prognosis for survival, but some patients remain refractive to these therapeutic regimens. Hence, in addition to reducing the long-term sideeffects of therapeutics for all leukemia patients, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat leukemia cases. Due to the cytotoxicity of drugs, the major challenge currently is to deliver the therapeutic agents to neoplastic cells while preserving the viability of non-malignant cells. In this study, we propose a therapeutic approach in which high doses of hydroxychloroquine and chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody.We first demonstrated the ability of the nanoparticles to target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles could kill not only p53-mutated/deleted leukemia cells expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells isolated from chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The safety of these nanoparticles was also demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects were shown in a new model of aggressive leukemia. These results showed that anti-CD20 nanoparticles containing hydroxychloroquine and chlorambucil can be effective in controlling aggressive leukemia and provided a rationale for adopting this approach for the treatment of other B-cell disorders. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Capolla S.,University of Trieste | Garrovo C.,Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo | Zorzet S.,University of Trieste | Lorenzon A.,Animal care Unit | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

The expectations of nanoparticle (NP)-based targeted drug delivery systems in cancer, when compared with convectional therapeutic methods, are greater efficacy and reduced drug side effects due to specific cellular-level interactions. However, there are conficting literature reports on enhanced tumor accumulation of targeted NPs, which is essential for translating their applications as improved drug-delivery systems and contrast agents in cancer imaging. In this study, we characterized biodegradable NPs conjugated with an anti-CD20 antibody for in vivo imaging and drug delivery onto tumor cells. NPs’ binding specificity mediated by anti-CD20 antibody was evaluated on MEC1 cells and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients’ cells. The whole-body distribution of untargeted NPs and anti-CD20 NPs were compared by time-domain optical imaging in a localized human/mouse model of B-cell malignancy. These studies provided evidence that NPs’ functionalization by an anti-CD20 antibody improves tumor pharmacoki-netic profiles in vivo after systemic administration and increases in vivo imaging of tumor mass compared to non-targeted NPs. Together, drug delivery and imaging probe represents a promising theranostics tool for targeting B-cell malignancies. © 2015 Capolla et al.


Gallo D.,Institutes of Biological Researches | Gallo D.,University of Padua | Cocchietto M.,Institutes of Biological Researches | Masat E.,University of Trieste | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and one of the major causes of cardiovascular mortality. Evidence suggests that its progression is due to the chronic hyperglycemia consequent to the production and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Lysozyme was shown to posses AGE-sequestering properties and the capacity to reduce the severity of the early stage manifestations of the diabetic nephropathy. This study was aimed to contribute to the understanding the molecular mechanisms of lysozyme effectiveness in the diabetic nephropathy, using an in-vitro cellular model, represented by the HK-2 cells, human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Lysozyme significantly reduced the AGE-induced IL-6 mRNA and an ELISA assay showed also a decreased release of the functional protein with a dose-dependent trend. In addition, lysozyme prevented macrophage recruitment, suggesting its capacity to elicit an anti-inflammatory action. We may conclude that the protective action of lysozyme on the nephrotoxic effects of AGE may depend, at least in part, on its ability to prevent the production and release of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and to reduce macrophage recruitment in the inflammatory sites. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.


PubMed | University of Perugia, Institutes of Biological Researches, University of Trieste and University of Padua
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of functional biomaterials | Year: 2014

to design, assemble and test a prototype of a novel production plant, suitable for producing microparticles (MPs) by processing highly viscous feed solutions (FSs).the prototype has been built using a commercial air compressor, a piston pump, an airless spray-gun, a customized air-treatment section, a timer, a rotating base, and a filtration section. Preliminary prototype parameter setting was carried out to individuate the best performing nozzles dimension, the nebulization timing, and the CaCl2 concentration in the gelation fluid. In addition, prototype throughput (1 L to 5 L) and the range of practicable feed solution (FS) viscosities were assayed. A set of four batches was prepared in order to characterize the MPs, in terms of mean particle size and distribution, flow properties, swelling, encapsulation efficiency and release.according to a qualitative scoring, the large nozzle was suitable to nebulize FSs at a higher alginate concentration. Conversely, the small nozzle performed better in the processing of FSs with an alginate concentration up to 2% w/v. Only at the highest degree of viscosity, corresponding to 5% w/v of alginate, the FS processing was not technically possible. Among the CaCl2 concentrations considered, 15% w/v was recognized as the most versatile. The prototype appears to be convenient and suitable to grant a high yield starting from 2 L of FS. The flow behavior of the FSs assayed can be satisfactorily described with the Carreau-Yasuda equation and the throughput begins to slightly decrease for FSs at alginate concentrations exceeding 3% w/v. MP morphology was irregular with crumpled shape. The angle of repose indicates a good flowability and the release studies showed gastro-resistance and potential prolonged release applications.the novel prototype of production plant is suitable to process large amounts (2 L or more) of FSs, characterized by a high viscosity, to produce MPs suitable for bioactive principle delivery.


PubMed | Institutes of Biological Researches
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) | Year: 2014

Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and one of the major causes of cardiovascular mortality. Evidence suggests that its progression is due to the chronic hyperglycemia consequent to the production and accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Lysozyme was shown to posses AGE-sequestering properties and the capacity to reduce the severity of the early stage manifestations of the diabetic nephropathy. This study was aimed to contribute to the understanding the molecular mechanisms of lysozyme effectiveness in the diabetic nephropathy, using an in-vitro cellular model, represented by the HK-2 cells, human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Lysozyme significantly reduced the AGE-induced IL-6 mRNA and an ELISA assay showed also a decreased release of the functional protein with a dose-dependent trend. In addition, lysozyme prevented macrophage recruitment, suggesting its capacity to elicit an anti-inflammatory action. We may conclude that the protective action of lysozyme on the nephrotoxic effects of AGE may depend, at least in part, on its ability to prevent the production and release of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and to reduce macrophage recruitment in the inflammatory sites.

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