Castelani L.,University of Sao Paulo |
Castelani L.,IZ Institute Zootecnia |
Pilon L.E.,IZ Institute Zootecnia |
Pilon L.E.,São Paulo State University |
And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2015
Biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus are important virulence factors in cases of mastitis in dairy cows. However, few studies have investigated mastitis strains isolated from heifers. Within this context, the objective of the present study was to investigate biofilm formation on Congo red agar, the presence of the icaA and icaD genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the percentage of in vitro antimicrobial resistance of 110 S.aureus isolates from mammary gland secretions of heifers and cows with mastitis. PCR detected the icaA and icaD genes in 98% and 100% of isolates, respectively. However, only 55.5% of all isolates produced a biofilm on Congo red agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that 47.0% of isolates from heifers and 70.4% of isolates from cows were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobial agents tested. Resistance to penicillin and/or ampicillin was the most frequent (44.5%). These results indicate the need to implement prophylactic and control measures of mastitis for heifers. Heifers and cows can carry resistant strains with the capacity of biofilm production, a fact representing a threat to public health and animal well-being and generating losses to dairy farmers. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
PubMed | IZ Institute Zootecnia
Type: Controlled Clinical Trial | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2012
Hematophagous gastrointestinal parasites cause significant economic losses in small ruminant grazing systems. The growing reports of multi-drug resistant parasites call for intensive research on alternative treatments for anthelmintics to help small ruminants cope with these parasites. Two-month-old lambs with mean body weight (BW) of 22.5 kg were experimentally infected with a multidrug-resistant Haemonchus contortus strain. Infected animals were dosed orally with Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil to evaluate its anthelmintic potential. Eighteen animals were allocated into three groups of six animals, and each received one of the following treatments: Group 1 - control (10 mL of water), Group 2 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (180 mg/kg BW); and Group 3 - C. schoenanthus essential oil (360 mg/kg BW). Animals received the oil once a day for 3 consecutive days. Lambs were evaluated clinically for blood biochemistry before, at 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after treatment, and then were euthanized to assess the total worm burden. No statistically significant reduction in fecal egg count, packed cell volume or total worm count was observed after treatments. Also, no statistical difference among group means for blood levels of urea, creatinine, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase was found. Larval development assay (LDA) and egg hatch assay (EHA) were performed from feces of treated animals at 1, 5, 10 and 15 days after essential oil administration. An inhibition in LDA was observed 1 day after the 3-day treatment in larvae from feces of animals treated with 360 mg/kg essential oil. In conclusion, the essential oil at the doses of 180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg was safe to sheep, but failed as an anthelmintic treatment when applied to young sheep artificially infected with a multidrug-resistant H. contortus strain.
PubMed | IZ Institute Zootecnia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary parasitology | Year: 2011
Anthelmintic resistance is a worldwide concern in small ruminant industry and new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oils were evaluated against developmental stages of trichostrongylids from sheep naturally infected (95% Haemonchus contortus and 5% Trichostrogylus spp.) through the egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), and the larval exsheathment assay (LEA). The major constituent of the essential oils, quantified by gas chromatography for M. piperita oil was menthol (42.5%), while for C. martinii and C. schoenanthus the main component was geraniol (81.4% and 62.5%, respectively). In all in vitro tests C. schoenanthus essential oil had the best activity against ovine trichostrongylids followed by C. martini, while M. piperita presented the least activity. Cymbopogon schoenanthus essential oil had LC(50) value of 0.045 mg/ml in EHA, 0.063 mg/ml in LDA, 0.009 mg/ml in LFIA, and 24.66 mg/ml in LEA. The anthelmintic activity of essential oils followed the same pattern in all in vitro tests, suggesting C. schoenanthus essential oil could be an interesting candidate for nematode control, although in vivo studies are necessary to validate the anthelmintic properties of this oil.