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Jelic G.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa | Topic V.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa | Butorac L.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa | Durdevic Z.,Hrvatske Sume D.o.o. Zagreb | And 2 more authors.
Sumarski List | Year: 2014

For successful afforestation in Mediterranean karst areas several important criteria must be fulfilled, especially adequate tree species selection, high-quality seedlings and proper soil preparation. Considering above metioned conditions, morphological features of one-year old stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) seedlings were analyzed. Seedlings were grown in different types of containers to establish the effect of container type on development (quality) of above- and belowground parts of the seedlings. Survival rates, growth and development of seedlings were measured and monitored in the period from 2003 to 2009, in forest culture on experimental plot in the vicinity of Šibenik (Mediterranean part of Croatia). Seedlings were planted both on ripped ground and in the pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm. Four types of containers were used: MP53/12, MP33/18, T7/24 and T8/24. Studied seedling variables (morphological features) include: seedling height, root collar diameter, biomass of the aboveground part of the seedlings and total seedling biomass. Two morphological indexes were calculated from measured variables: S/R ratio and DQI. Morphological dimensions of root systems (total root length, number of root tips, surface area and root volume) were scanned and measured with WinRhizo software. Seedlings were arranged over the area of the experimental plot according to the randomized block method. Seedlings were randomly assigned to 3 blocks (block area = 0.2 ha). Within each block two types of soil preparation prior to planting were performed: in pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm, and on the ripped ground. Each year during the experiment, after the growth cessation, seedlings were measured for height increment, and survival rates (e.g. mortality), with respect to container type and planting method. After six years plants were also measured for stem diameter at the height of 10 cm above ground level. Morphological features with regard to container type were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple Turkey's post hoc test. Relationship between survival rates in 2009 and initial seedling height, container type, soil preparation method, as well as their interactions, for the period between 2003 and 2009, was evaluated with the repeated measures analysis of variance. ANOVA was also used to test for the influence of container type and soil preparation method on the diameters of seedlings six years after planting. Morphological features of seedlings derived from the samples of 20 seedlings per container type (Table 2), mostly showed significantly higher values in larger containers (T7/24 and T8/24) compared to smaller containers (MP53/12 and MP33/18). Root analyses also showed that roots of seedlings from smallest containers (MP53/12) were deformed to a high degree (Picture 2 and 3). In larger containers (MP33/18) root deformation was largely reduced. On the other hand, bind of roots into growing medium in seedlings grown in large containers was insufficient, although the roots were not deformed. Results indicate that the survival rates over six years in forest culture were influenced mainly by soil preparation (exp (β) = 3,4591; p < 0,0001), followed by container size in interaction with soil preparation method. Seedlings from larger containers (seedlings of higher quality) planted on ripped ground had several times lesser mortality compared to seedlings from smaller containers planted in pits excavated manually (exp (β) = 3,0710; p = 0,0024). Container type and soil preparation also exhibited influence on height growth of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). Seedlings of stone pine grown in larger containers show more intensive growth and development in forest culture during first six years (F = 101,488; p < 0,000001). Similarly, seedlings planted on ripped ground have better growth and development characteristics compared to seedlings planted in pits with dimensions of 40 × 40 × 40 cm (F = 83,750; p < 0,000001). Six years after the planting seedlings grown initially in larger containers (T7/24 and T8/24) had larger stem diameters (F = 32,663; p = 0,00001) compared to seedlings originated from smaller containers (MP53/12 and MP33/18). Plants that were growing on ripped ground have managed to acquire larger stem diameters compared to seedlings planted in pits (F = 44,187; p = 0,00001). Seedlings of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) grown in container MP53/12 have developed highly deformed root systems because of inadequate dimensions of this container and its technological absoluteness. Therefore is recommended to gradually abandon the use of MP53/12 and MP33/18 containers from nursery production. Further research is needed to eventually define new, modern solutions adapted to production of high-quality seedlings for afforestation of Mediterranean karst area. Without proper soil preparation (ripping in this case) and adequate containers for production of high-quality seedlings it is impossible to successfully afforest Mediterranean karst area. Source


Topic V.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa | Butorac L.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa | Jelic G.,Institute za Jadranske Kulture i Melioraciju Krsa
Sumarski List | Year: 2011

Stating of biomass in forest ecosystems and development of models for its quick estimation is an important part of investigation, especially on karst. During many years of research on research projects the authors have collected and partly published data about biomass for some important species on Mediterranean karst area of Croatia. This paper presents the results of green wood and foliage mass measurement above soil level in maquis of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.). Research was made and samples collected on permanent experimental plot on Vrgorac area. The plot has dimensions of 1 ha, the subplot number 15, which was excluded and on which measurements on vegetation was made and its basic structural data stated, has 100 m 2 (table 1). Canopy on subplot amounts to 69,61%, the medium height of sprout of strawberry tree is 1,61 m (maximal 2,30 m). Wood and foliage mass on experimental plot was measured separately for every bush as weight and volume, the independent estimation were the height of the bush, diameter of the crown and number of sprouts on the trunk. The weight of wood and leaf was measured in kg, the volume in m 3, the height of the bush and diameter of bush crown in m. The volume of wood in research maquis, on the area of 100 m 2, amounts to 0,095 m 3, the volume of leaf 0,074 m 3. The important part of the research also comprises the model for quick and reliable estimation of wood and leaf mass in these forest ecosystems. General lineal modelling was used for development of the model. In table 3 it is evident that the height and wood volume is in strong correlation with number of sprouts on the trunk (r = 0,611) and bush height (r = 0,619) and in very strong correlation with crown diameter (r = 0,846). The weight and leaf volume are in strong correlation with bush height (r = 0,610), in very strong with number of sprouts on the trunk (r = 0,775) and crown diameter (r = 0,892). On the basis of number of sprouts on the trunk, bush height and diameter of the crown, as independent variables, the weight and wood and leaf volume of strawberry tree were estimated by univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In table 4 and figure 4 the regression models for estimation of weight and volume of wood and foliage of strawberry tree on experimental plot 15 are shown. By univariate regression analysis the significant dependance on weight and volume of wood and leaf with number of sprouts on the trunk, height of bush and crown diameter was stated. The results show that the number of sprouts explains 35,5% (β = 0,611; p<0,0001), the height of the bush 36,5% (β = 0,619;p<0,0001), the crown diameter 70,7% (β = 0,846;p<0,0001) the variability of the weight and wood volume. The number of sprouts on the explains 59,2% (β = 0,777; p<0,0001), the height of the bush 35,4% (β = 0,610; p<0,0001) and crown diameter 79,0% (β = 0,893; p<0,0001) of variability of leaf weight and volume. In figure 4, besides regression analysis of dependance of weight and volume of wood and leaf on number of sprouts on the trunk and diameter of the crown the equations of regression line beside the level of significance of 5% were given. By multivariate regression analysis (table 4) the significal dependance of weight and tree volume and leaf with crown diameter was stated T ds(iβ= 0,756; p<0,0001), T ℓ-(β = 0,843; p<0,0001), while the significance for bush height was not stated T d-(β = 0,142; p<0,233), T ℓ(β = 0,078; p<0,441). The results of multivariate regression analysis show that the crown diameter and height of bush explain 71,1% of variability of weight and volume of wood (R 2 = 0,711) and 78,8% variability of weight and leaf volume (R 2 = 0,788). All models can be applied for quick and reliable estimation of biomass of species (wood and leaf) in maquis of strawberry trees, especially with variables of crown diameter. Source

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