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Pate M.,Institute za mikrobiologijo in parazitologijo | Gruntar I.,Institute za mikrobiologijo in parazitologijo | Kusar D.,Institute za mikrobiologijo in parazitologijo | Micunovic J.,Institute za mikrobiologijo in parazitologijo | And 4 more authors.
Slovenian Veterinary Research | Year: 2011

Campylobacter jejuni is the major causative agent of intestinal campylobacteriosis, the most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union. In order to clarify the epizootiological situation regarding the presence of C. jejuni in broilers, a genetic diversity of 100 C. jejuni isolates was assessed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The isolates were collected in 2008 within the scope of the baseline survey on spread of campylobacters in broiler flocks and on broiler carcasses. Broilers originated from 52 farms located in six regions. In order to investigate the contamination at slaughterhouses, two isolates per animal (one from faeces and one from a carcass) were analyzed in 43 broilers. A high degree of the genetic diversity was detected among C. jejuni isolates. Isolates collected in different time periods from broilers originating from the same farm showed genetic differences, indicating that the strains do not persist on farms. More than 50% of the isolates cultivated from faeces and the carcass of the same animal showed identical genetic profiles, which suggests a direct contamination of the carcasses at slaughterhouses. The carcasses may get contaminated also by cross contaminations or from the other sources at slaughterhouses. The results of the study also demonstrate that strains with a certain genetic profile may be prevalent either in a geographically limited region or in individual slaughterhouses. In order to fully clarify the routes of contaminations of poultry-derived food and to take effective measures for a safe food production, additional and more oriented studies are needed.


Henigman U.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Biasizzo M.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Vadnjal S.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Kirbis A.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | And 4 more authors.
Slovenian Veterinary Research | Year: 2011

Noroviruses are the most common source of gastroenteritis in humans. Genetically very diverse group is classified within the Caliciviridae family. People become infected with noroviruses by contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. The source of infection may be mussels, growing in contaminated water and accumulating contaminants through water filtration. Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are cultivated at three harvesting areas in the Slovenian Sea: Seca, Strunjan and Debeli Rtič. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of noroviruses in harvested areas and in wild living mussels. Strains detected from seafood were compared with strains from humans to identify the possible connection. Three shellfish harvesting areas and wild mussels from natural beds in the area of Piran were sampled in the years 2006-2008 and included in our study. Specific product of a short part of the gene for RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was amplified, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In total, 168 samples were investigated. In 18 samples of mussels norovirus RNA was detected, representing 10.7%. The most common norovirus genotype was GII.4, subtype 2006b, which is also the most prevalent genotype in human with gastroenteritis in Slovenia. In harvesting area Debeli Rtič and also among wild mussels near Piran, large proportion of positive samples were found. The similarity of strains isolated from humans and mussels suggests that the shellfish at harvesting sites are contaminated with sewage from the surrounding areas and that the mussels are a potential source of human infections.


Perme T.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Krizman M.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Kirbis A.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo | Dolenc J.,Institute za higieno zivil in bromatologijo
Slovenian Veterinary Research | Year: 2011

Antimicrobial drugs are not allowed for use in honey production in the European Union (EU). There are no maximum residue limits fixed regarding antimicrobial agents in honey. Discussions are however being conducted in order to set working limits at the European level-for oxytetracycline, 25 ppb was proposed. Tetracycline antibiotics are broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They are used in America and Great Britain to treat American and European foulbrood. When used in beekeeping, important concentrations up to 1 mg/kg can be found in honey, with a slow depletion and degradation time (a half-life time for oxytetracycline is 9-44 days and for tetracycline 65 days). Screening methods should be simple, fast and sensitive enough to detect very low concentrations of antibiotic residues in food. We first validated ELISA test RIDASCREEN® Tetracyclin (R3501 and R3503), by R-Biopharm AG, and then Honey TETRASENSOR 10 ppb test (TH00616-for 25 samples-and TH00624-for 100 samples), by Unisensor S.A., Belgium. Validation procedure was conducted according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the validation of screening methods for residues of veterinary medicines (initial validation and transfer), Afssa, Fouger̀es, 2010. Different samples of honey were fortified with standard additions of tetracycline antibiotics (doxicilin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline). We concluded that Honey TETRASENSOR 10 ppb test is easier to use, faster, more sensitive to all tetracyclines and robust enough to reliably detect tetracycline residues in honey.

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