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Dembilio O.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Tapia G.V.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Tellez M.M.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Jacas J.A.,Jaume I University
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2012

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an economically important pest of palms worldwide. To better understand the phenology of R. ferrugineus populations in the Mediterranean basin, the objective of the present work has been to estimate the effect of temperatures within the range 10-25°C on the reproductive parameters of R. ferrugineus and to determine its lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching. Our results confirm that oviposition in R. ferrugineus is strongly affected by temperature. Lower thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching (15.45° and 13.95°C, respectively) are below the mean monthly temperatures registered in winter in most of the northern shore of the Mediterranean basin. Under these circumstances, new palm infestations would be difficult during most of the winter. These results should be taken into account when planning some palm management practices, such as pruning or pesticide treatments, in areas under a Mediterranean climate. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

Arbona V.,Jaume I University | Iglesias D.J.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Gomez-Cadenas A.,Jaume I University
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Genetic diversity of citrus includes intrageneric hybrids, cultivars arising from cross-pollination and/or somatic mutations with particular biochemical compounds such as sugar, acids and secondary metabolite composition. Results: Secondary metabolite profiles of juices from 12 commercial varieties grouped into blonde and navel types, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits were analyzed by LC/ESI-QTOF-MS. HCA on metabolite profiling data revealed the existence of natural groups demarcating fruit types and varieties associated to specific composition patterns. The unbiased classification provided by HCA was used for PLS-DA to find the potential variables (mass chromatographic features) responsible for the classification. Abscisic acid and derivatives, several flavonoids and limonoids were identified by analysis of mass spectra. To facilitate interpretation, metabolites were represented as flow charts depicting biosynthetic pathways. Mandarins 'Fortune' and 'Hernandina' along with oranges showed higher ABA contents and ABA degradation products were present as glycosylated forms in oranges and certain mandarins. All orange and grapefruit varieties showed high limonin contents and its glycosylated form, that was only absent in lemons. The rest of identified limonoids were highly abundant in oranges. Particularly, Sucrenya cultivar showed a specific accumulation of obacunone and limonoate A-ring lactone. Polymethoxylated flavanones (tangeritin and isomers) were absolutely absent from lemons and grapefruits whereas kaempferol deoxyhexose hexose isomer #2, naringin and neohesperidin were only present in these cultivars. Conclusions: Analysis of relative metabolite build-up in closely-related genotypes allowed the efficient demarcation of cultivars and suggested the existence of genotype-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential metabolite accumulation. © 2015 Arbona et al.

Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2013

Preventive and curative activities of postharvest treatments with selected chemical resistance inducers to control postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' or 'Lanelate') artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, were evaluated. In vivo primary screenings to select the most effective chemicals and concentrations were performed with benzothiadiazole (BTH), β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), sodium silicate (SSi), salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and harpin. INA at 0.03. mM, SA at 0.25. mM, BABA at 0.3. mM and BTH at 0.9. mM were selected and tested afterwards as dips at 20°C for 60 or 150. s with oranges artificially inoculated before or after the treatment and incubated for 7. d at 20°C. Although it was an effective treatment, SSi at 1000. mM was discarded because of potential phytotoxicity to the fruit rind. Preventive or curative postharvest dips at room temperature had no effect or only reduced the development of GM and BM very slightly. Therefore, these treatments cannot be recommended for inclusion in postharvest decay management programs for citrus packinghouses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Montesinos-Herrero C.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2013

The curative antifungal activity of postharvest sodium methylparaben (SMP) treatments against citrus green (GM) and blue (BM) molds was characterized on different citrus species and cultivars artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum and incubated at 20°C and 90% RH for 7 d or stored at 5°C and 90% RH for 8 weeks plus 7 d of shelf-life at 20°C. Effective concentrations were selected in in vivo primary screenings with 'Valencia' oranges. SMP at 200mM was tested at 20, 50 or 62°C for 30, 60 or 150s in small-scale trials to determine the best dip treatment conditions. Dips of 200mM SMP at 20°C for 60s were selected and applied alone or in combination with 25μLL-1 of the conventional fungicide imazalil (SMP+IMZ 25). Imazalil at the very low concentrations of 25 (IMZ 25) or 50μLL-1 (IMZ 50) were also tested. Effectiveness of SMP alone at 20°C for 60s was significantly higher on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' and 'Lanelate') than on mandarins (cvs. 'Clemenules', 'Nadorcott' and 'Ortanique'), with GM and BM incidence reductions of up to 88% after 7 d at 20°C. SMP was compatible with IMZ 25 and consistently improved its performance, irrespective of citrus cultivars and storage conditions. All treatments were less effective on 'Clemenules' mandarins. On 'Valencia' oranges stored for 8 weeks at 5°C and 7 d at 20°C, the combined treatment was significantly more effective than the single treatments (reductions of GM and BM incidence of about 50-60% and 90-95%, respectively). In additional tests, 200mM SMP dips at 20°C for 60s did not prevent GM on 'Valencia' oranges wounded, treated, inoculated with P. digitatum 24h later, and incubated at 20°C for 7 d. In contrast, the treatments IMZ 25 and SMP+IMZ 25 showed significant preventive activity. It can be concluded from these results that SMP aqueous solutions, especially applied at room temperature, might be an interesting nonpolluting control alternative to be included in citrus postharvest disease control programs in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fagundes C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perez-Gago M.B.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Monteiro A.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7. days of incubation at 25. °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24. h later, and incubated at 20. °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15. days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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