Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA

Montcada i Reixac, Spain

Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA

Montcada i Reixac, Spain
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Estornell L.H.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Agusti J.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Agusti J.,Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology | Merelo P.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | And 3 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2013

Abscission consists in the detachment of entire vegetative and reproductive organs due to cell separation processes occurring at the abscission zones (AZs) at specific positions of the plant body. From an evolutionary point of view, abscission is a highly advantageous process resulting into fruit and seed dispersal as well as the shedding of no longer useful organs. In an agricultural context, however, abscission may become a major limiting factor for crop productivity. Domestication of major crops included the selection of plants that did not naturally shed ripe fruits or seeds. The understanding of abscission is of great importance to control seed and fruit production and to improve breeding and harvesting practices. Thus, advances made on model plants and crops are of major importance since they may provide potential candidate genes for further biotechnological applications. Here, we review the current knowledge of the physiological, genetic and genomic aspects related to abscission including the most recently disclosed putative regulators that appear to be implicated in the development and/or activation of the AZs. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Dembilio O.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Tapia G.V.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Tellez M.M.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA | Jacas J.A.,Jaume I University
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2012

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an economically important pest of palms worldwide. To better understand the phenology of R. ferrugineus populations in the Mediterranean basin, the objective of the present work has been to estimate the effect of temperatures within the range 10-25°C on the reproductive parameters of R. ferrugineus and to determine its lower temperature thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching. Our results confirm that oviposition in R. ferrugineus is strongly affected by temperature. Lower thresholds for oviposition and egg hatching (15.45° and 13.95°C, respectively) are below the mean monthly temperatures registered in winter in most of the northern shore of the Mediterranean basin. Under these circumstances, new palm infestations would be difficult during most of the winter. These results should be taken into account when planning some palm management practices, such as pruning or pesticide treatments, in areas under a Mediterranean climate. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011.

Arbona V.,Jaume I University | Iglesias D.J.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Gomez-Cadenas A.,Jaume I University
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2015

Genetic diversity of citrus includes intrageneric hybrids, cultivars arising from cross-pollination and/or somatic mutations with particular biochemical compounds such as sugar, acids and secondary metabolite composition. Results: Secondary metabolite profiles of juices from 12 commercial varieties grouped into blonde and navel types, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits were analyzed by LC/ESI-QTOF-MS. HCA on metabolite profiling data revealed the existence of natural groups demarcating fruit types and varieties associated to specific composition patterns. The unbiased classification provided by HCA was used for PLS-DA to find the potential variables (mass chromatographic features) responsible for the classification. Abscisic acid and derivatives, several flavonoids and limonoids were identified by analysis of mass spectra. To facilitate interpretation, metabolites were represented as flow charts depicting biosynthetic pathways. Mandarins 'Fortune' and 'Hernandina' along with oranges showed higher ABA contents and ABA degradation products were present as glycosylated forms in oranges and certain mandarins. All orange and grapefruit varieties showed high limonin contents and its glycosylated form, that was only absent in lemons. The rest of identified limonoids were highly abundant in oranges. Particularly, Sucrenya cultivar showed a specific accumulation of obacunone and limonoate A-ring lactone. Polymethoxylated flavanones (tangeritin and isomers) were absolutely absent from lemons and grapefruits whereas kaempferol deoxyhexose hexose isomer #2, naringin and neohesperidin were only present in these cultivars. Conclusions: Analysis of relative metabolite build-up in closely-related genotypes allowed the efficient demarcation of cultivars and suggested the existence of genotype-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential metabolite accumulation. © 2015 Arbona et al.

Llacer E.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Dembilio O.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Jacas J.A.,Jaume I University
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

The weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of palms. It has recently colonized the Mediterranean Basin where it is a serious problem on ornamental Phoenix canariensis (hort. ex Chabaud) palms. The efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation (Inesfly IGR FITO, Industrias Qumicas Inesba S.L., Paiporta, Spain) against this weevil has been studied, Laboratory results proved that pyriproxyfen has no effect against R. ferrugineus when applied in this microen-capsulated formulation, Semifield trials dismissed Inesfly IGR FITO as a curative insecticide but showed the potential of this product in the preventative control of R. ferrugineus in palms. One single application could prevent infestation for up to 6 mo with a mean efficacy of 83.3%. © 2010 Entomological Society of America.

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), the major pest of palms in the Mediterranean, has mainly spread through movement of infested plants. The aim of this work was to determine the possibility of using aluminium phosphide in palms as a safe quarantine treatment against this pest. Laboratory tests were carried out on eggs, young and old larvae, pupae and adults of R. ferrugineus with different doses of Eurofume® and mortality was assessed. Fumigations of infested canary palms were carried out in a hermetic container and subsequently palms were carefully dissected and all R. ferrugineus specimens found, either dead or alive, were counted. Results suggest that a dose of 1.14 g aluminium phosphide m-3 for 3 days is enough to kill all stages of R. ferrugineus in an infested palm tree. Provided that applied dose of aluminium phosphide is not phytotoxic for palms, this treatment could significantly reduce at low cost the enormous risks that palm imports suppose worldwide.

Fagundes C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perez-Gago M.B.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Monteiro A.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2013

The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7. days of incubation at 25. °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24. h later, and incubated at 20. °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15. days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Fagundes C.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Monteiro A.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perez-Gago M.B.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2014

Edible composite coatings based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), beeswax (BW), and food preservatives with antifungal properties, were evaluated on cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Food preservatives selected from previous research work included sodium propionate (SP), potassium carbonate (PC), ammonium phosphate (APh) and ammonium carbonate (AC). Cherry tomatoes artificially inoculated with Botrytis cinerea were coated and stored up to 15. d at 5. °C followed by 7. d of shelf-life at 20. °C. All antifungal HPMC-BW coatings significantly reduced gray mold development on inoculated and cold-stored cherry tomatoes, the SP-based coating being the most effective. Analytical and sensory fruit quality was also evaluated after cold storage and shelf-life. The AC-based coating was the most effective to control weight loss and maintain the firmness of coated cherry tomatoes. Respiration rate, firmness, color, sensory flavor, off-flavor, and fruit appearance were not adversely affected by the application of the antifungal coatings. Overall, the application of HPMC-BW edible composite coatings containing AC could be a promising treatment to extend the postharvest life of cherry tomatoes. Further studies should focus on the modification of some physical characteristics of the coatings in order to enhance the general performance and provide higher peel gloss. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Montesinos-Herrero C.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2013

The curative antifungal activity of postharvest sodium methylparaben (SMP) treatments against citrus green (GM) and blue (BM) molds was characterized on different citrus species and cultivars artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or Penicillium italicum and incubated at 20°C and 90% RH for 7 d or stored at 5°C and 90% RH for 8 weeks plus 7 d of shelf-life at 20°C. Effective concentrations were selected in in vivo primary screenings with 'Valencia' oranges. SMP at 200mM was tested at 20, 50 or 62°C for 30, 60 or 150s in small-scale trials to determine the best dip treatment conditions. Dips of 200mM SMP at 20°C for 60s were selected and applied alone or in combination with 25μLL-1 of the conventional fungicide imazalil (SMP+IMZ 25). Imazalil at the very low concentrations of 25 (IMZ 25) or 50μLL-1 (IMZ 50) were also tested. Effectiveness of SMP alone at 20°C for 60s was significantly higher on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' and 'Lanelate') than on mandarins (cvs. 'Clemenules', 'Nadorcott' and 'Ortanique'), with GM and BM incidence reductions of up to 88% after 7 d at 20°C. SMP was compatible with IMZ 25 and consistently improved its performance, irrespective of citrus cultivars and storage conditions. All treatments were less effective on 'Clemenules' mandarins. On 'Valencia' oranges stored for 8 weeks at 5°C and 7 d at 20°C, the combined treatment was significantly more effective than the single treatments (reductions of GM and BM incidence of about 50-60% and 90-95%, respectively). In additional tests, 200mM SMP dips at 20°C for 60s did not prevent GM on 'Valencia' oranges wounded, treated, inoculated with P. digitatum 24h later, and incubated at 20°C for 7 d. In contrast, the treatments IMZ 25 and SMP+IMZ 25 showed significant preventive activity. It can be concluded from these results that SMP aqueous solutions, especially applied at room temperature, might be an interesting nonpolluting control alternative to be included in citrus postharvest disease control programs in the future. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Moscoso-Ramirez P.A.,Colegio de Mexico | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2013

Preventive and curative activities of postharvest treatments with selected chemical resistance inducers to control postharvest green (GM) and blue (BM) molds on oranges (cvs. 'Valencia' or 'Lanelate') artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, were evaluated. In vivo primary screenings to select the most effective chemicals and concentrations were performed with benzothiadiazole (BTH), β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), sodium silicate (SSi), salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and harpin. INA at 0.03. mM, SA at 0.25. mM, BABA at 0.3. mM and BTH at 0.9. mM were selected and tested afterwards as dips at 20°C for 60 or 150. s with oranges artificially inoculated before or after the treatment and incubated for 7. d at 20°C. Although it was an effective treatment, SSi at 1000. mM was discarded because of potential phytotoxicity to the fruit rind. Preventive or curative postharvest dips at room temperature had no effect or only reduced the development of GM and BM very slightly. Therefore, these treatments cannot be recommended for inclusion in postharvest decay management programs for citrus packinghouses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Montesinos-Herrero C.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA | Palou L.,Institute Valencia dInvestigacions Agraries IVIA
Stewart Postharvest Review | Year: 2010

Purpose of the review: Numerous physical and low-toxicity chemical treatments and their combinations have been evaluated to replace the common synthetic fungicides used to control green and blue moulds and sour rot, the most economically important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. Although general or more specific research on this subject has been reviewed, new findings are reported every day because of the increasing interest and the large volume of research devoted to the establishment of suitable integrated disease management (IDM) programs. The present review summarises the knowledge on this topic, giving emphasis to the most recent research results and conclusions. Findings: Extensive research about combined physical and low-toxicity chemical treatments shows that the substitution of synthetic fungicides, or an important reduction in their required doses, by alternative treatments is currently feasible. In order to achieve an efficacy level commercially acceptable, these postharvest non-polluting alternative treatments need to be incorporated into IDM programs that also consider a variety of good practices to be followed from the field to the market. Limitations: Even when combined, physical and low-toxicity chemical treatments may lack the persistence and preventive action of conventional fungicides and their effectiveness against established fungal infections depends highly on the species, cultivar and fruit's physical and physiological condition. High costs, excessive duration or other technological application problems are drawbacks of some effective alternative treatments when compared to the use of chemical fungicides. These handicaps have retarded the widespread commercial replacement of common fungicides by non-toxic alternatives for citrus postharvest management. Directions for future research: Ongoing research about host-pathogen interactions, new and more effective alternative treatments and the effects of these treatments on biochemical and molecular responses of fruits and pathogens is improving the efficacy of alternative treatments and their commercial applicability. In order to completely rely on alternative methods, there is a need to establish specific and optimised non-polluting IDM programs. © 2010 Stewart Postharvest Solutions (UK) Ltd.

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