Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche

Abéché, Chad

Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche

Abéché, Chad

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Ndeledje N.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Ndeledje N.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Développement Sur L'elevage En Zone Sub Humide | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:In Chad, several species of tsetse flies (Genus: Glossina) transmit African animal trypanosomoses (AAT), which represents a major obstacle to cattle rearing, and sleeping sickness, which impacts public health. After the failure of past interventions to eradicate tsetse, the government of Chad is now looking for other approaches that integrate cost-effective intervention techniques, which can be applied by the stake holders to control tsetse-transmitted trypanosomoses in a sustainable manner. The present study thus attempted to assess the efficacy of restricted application of insecticides to cattle leg extremities using footbaths for controlling Glossina m. submorsitans, G. tachinoides and G. f. fuscipes in southern Chad. Methodology/Principal Findings:Two sites were included, one close to the historical human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) focus of Moundou and the other to the active foci of Bodo and Moissala. At both sites, a treated and an untreated herd were compared. In the treatment sites, cattle were treated on a regular basis using a formulation of deltamethrin 0.005% (67 to 98 cattle were treated in one of the sites and 88 to 102 in the other one). For each herd, tsetse densities were monthly monitored using 7 biconical traps set along the river and beside the cattle pen from February to December 2009. The impact of footbath treatment on tsetse populations was strong (p < 10-3) with a reduction of 80% in total tsetse catches by the end of the 6-month footbath treatment.Conclusions/Significance:The impact of footbath treatment as a vector control tool within an integrated strategy to manage AAT and HAT is discussed in the framework of the "One Health" concept. Like other techniques based on the treatment of cattle, this technology should be used under controlled conditions, in order to avoid the development of insecticide and acaricide resistance in tsetse and tick populations, respectively. © 2013 Ndeledje et al.


Missohou A.,British Petroleum | Poutya M.R.,British Petroleum | Nenonene A.,University of Lomé | Dayo G.-K.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Développement Sur L'elevage En Zone Sub Humide | And 4 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011

This study was carried out to study the genetic relationship among nine (9) West African goat breeds out of which 6 (Guinea dwarf, Kirdi, Ghana dwarf, Mossi, Togo dwarf, Senegal dwarf) were of the trypanotolerant type and 3 (Mali Sahel, Mauritania Sahel, Chad Sahel) were of the trypanosusceptible type. One hundred ninety nine (199) animals were genotyped using 10 microsatellites. The microsatellites loci analysed were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles of 11.7 ± 3.7 ranging from 6 to 20. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.603 ± 0.164 (Togo dwarf) to 0.726 ± 0.166 (Chad Sahel). It was lower than expected heterozygosity in most of the breeds indicating a deviation from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The Fst measure of genetic distance between pairs of populations showed the highest distance (0.098) between Kirdi and Guinea dwarf which presented an isolated position from the other breeds and the lowest distance (0.025) between Togo dwarf and Mossi. Our study showed that the genetic relationships among the concerned breeds correspond to their geographical distribution. In addition, Guinea dwarf is strongly separated from the other breeds. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Farikou O.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | Farikou O.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Sawadogo S.,Ecole Polytechnique de Thies | Niang A.,Cheikh Anta Diop University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans | Year: 2015

We have investigated the phytoplankton dynamics of the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region, which is a very productive region, by processing a 13 year set of SeaWiFS satellite ocean-color measurements using a PHYSAT-like method. We clustered the spectra of the ocean-color normalized reflectance (reflectance normalized by a reflectance dependent on chlorophyll-a concentration only) into 10 significant spectral classes using a Self-Organized Map (SOM) associated with a hierarchical ascendant classification (HAC). By analyzing a 13 year climatology of these classes, we have been able to outline a coherent scenario describing the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region in terms of spatiotemporal variability of phytoplankton groups: during the onset of the upwelling (December-February), we mainly observed nanoeukaryote-type phytoplankton in the coastal area; in April-May, the period corresponding to the maximum chlorophyll-a concentration, the nanoeukaryote types were replaced by diatom types. This scenario is in agreement with microscope phytoplankton cell observations done during several past cruises. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Ayssiwede S.B.,Lana | Dieng A.,Laboratoire Of Bromatologie | Houinato M.R.B.,University Abomey Calavi | Chrysostome C.A.A.M.,University Abomey Calavi | And 4 more authors.
Annales de Medecine Veterinaire | Year: 2013

This review focuses on the place and the roles (socio-economic, cultural, religious, nutritional, family farming) of indigenous or village chickens in poverty alleviation and food security for people in African rural areas. It describes the characteristics of the different breeding systems (extensive and improved) and the chicken feeding practices observed in this livestock sector. After having reviewed the existing phenotypic varieties in the African indigenous chickens population, and the reproductive traits and growth performance of these birds in Senegal and others countries of Africa, the overview discuss and highlights the majors constraints (housing, high mortality, avian diseases, predators, shortage and irregularity of feed supply, microcredit...) that still hinder the traditional poultry development in Senegal and in sub-Saharan Africa.


Carcea M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Sorto M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Batello C.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Narducci V.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 11 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Samples of dihé, a natural food product traditionally consumed in the lake Chad region in Africa, made of dried algae of the Arthrospira genus, were analysed to evaluate their nutritional quality and some aspects of safety of use. Traditional dihé resulted to be a food of high nutritional quality, with an elevated content of high biological quality proteins, rich in mineral elements, with an interesting quantity of lipids containing essential unsaturated fatty acids, a generally sufficient and often very high content of folates, a good content of phenols and of vitamin E and an elevated content of carotenoid pigments, especially beta carotene. The dihé characteristics varied with the site and the season. Samples of dihé produced with a new experimental technique that allows to obtain a sand-free, microbiologically safer product, were also analysed. The comparison between traditional and improved dihé revealed that the improved technique is less protective of photosensitive and thermolabile nutrients, like folates, phenols, vitamin E and carotenoids. This study also revealed the presence, in both the traditional and the improved product, of heavy metals and other elements of toxicological interest. However, the potential danger represented by these elements is dependant on the level of consumption of dihé. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Carcea M.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Sorto M.,Institute Tchadien Of Recherche Agronomique Pour Le Developpement Itrad | Batello C.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Narducci V.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 11 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Samples of dihé, a natural food product traditionally consumed in the lake Chad region in Africa, made of dried algae of the Arthrospira genus, were analysed to evaluate their nutritional quality and some aspects of safety of use. Traditional dihé resulted to be a food of high nutritional quality, with an elevated content of high biological quality proteins, rich in mineral elements, with an interesting quantity of lipids containing essential unsaturated fatty acids, a generally sufficient and often very high content of folates, a good content of phenols and of vitamin E and an elevated content of carotenoid pigments, especially beta carotene. The dihé characteristics varied with the site and the season. Samples of dihé produced with a new experimental technique that allows to obtain a sand-free, microbiologically safer product, were also analysed. The comparison between traditional and improved dihé revealed that the improved technique is less protective of photosensitive and thermolabile nutrients, like folates, phenols, vitamin E and carotenoids. This study also revealed the presence, in both the traditional and the improved product, of heavy metals and other elements of toxicological interest. However, the potential danger represented by these elements is dependant on the level of consumption of dihé. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Issa A.Y.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Mopate L.Y.,British Petroleum | Ayssiwede S.B.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation | Missohou A.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to characterize the production of chickens and technical performance of family poultry farms in the Departments of Hadjer Lamis in the Sahel zone and West Tandjilé in the Sudanian zone. The crosscutting and retrospective survey covered 16 villages and 233 farmers randomly selected. The investigated Livestock was made up of 5208 birds. Poultry farmers are mainly farmers (86.7%), with an average age of 40.7 ± 14.9 years practice poultry farming as a secondary activity. They are mostly men (71.2%), illiterate (51.5%) and especially married (91.8%). The majority of men (70.4%) reported being owners of the poultry yards. Dominant types of henhouses are huts (45.1%) and rudimentary livestock structures (35.5%). Feed distributed to poultry are mainly cereals (77.7%) served on the ground (60.9%), 2 times a day by 96.6% of poultry farmers. Drinking water is served in old utensils (47.2%), broken jars or pottery (39.1%) and wooden containers (13.7%). Medical prophylaxis is non-existent; farmers make use of traditional care in case of bird disease. Newcastle disease and predation are the main causes of mortality in chicken breeding. The size of the poultry yards is 16.8 ± 19.9 chickens for a hens/rooster sex ratio of about 2.0. The age at first egg is 5.6 ± 1.31 months. The number of broods per annum is 3.57 ± 0.92, with 11.56 ± 2.23 eggs/egg-laying. The average hatching rate is about 87% and chick survival to weaning 74%. Production is mainly destined for sale (87.6%). With 22.68 ± 11.32 individuals sold per annum at an average price of 2270 FCFA per chicken, earnings are 51.529 CFA/annum per producer. The average number of chickens consumed is 6.99 ± 7.65 heads per annum. Decisions to sell chickens are made especially by men (60.5%), but only women have ensured the sale at the markets. No significant difference was observed between the two Departments at the socio-economic level and reproductive parameters of the birds, probably due to the similarity of practices implemented. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2013.


Youssouf I.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Youssouf I.,Lana | Youssouf M.L.,British Petroleum | Soumarkamla D.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Ayao M.,Lana
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The study characterized the supply and the marketing of traditional fowls in the markets of the city of N'Djamena. It surveyed 104 tradesmen including 29 wholesalers retailers, 61 retailers and 14 peddlers chosen at random in six markets distributed in 5 districts of N'Djamena. The crosscutting and retrospective investigation is carried out among salesmen. Observations were made on chickens slaughtered for sale at the market. The tradesmen aged 35.4±10.8 years are mostly (96%) Moslem and illiterate tradesmen (63%) who started (75%) their trade between the 1990s and 2000s. Wholesalers and retailers get their supplies especially (63%) in the Hadjer Lamis (39%), Western Tandjilé (18%) and Eastern Mayo-Kebbi (6%) regions. As for the peddlers (13%), they get their supplies from the markets in N'Djamena where the fowls are sold. Transportation is done using trucks (58%) and cabs (28%) by the other tradesmen and on foot (14%) downtown by the peddlers. Packing is especially made up of single cages (73%). Out of 542 fowls lost during transport, chickens constitute 91% of the losses, pigeons 8% and guinea fowls 1%. These losses are estimated at 1004150 F CFA. Major customers are housewives (34%) while 66% of others are found especially among restaurant owners and street meat grill operators. Out of 3701 fowls sold per day, 92% are chickens of an average live weight of 1047 G and a carcass weight of 681 G. About 2713 birds representing 73% of the fowls are slaughtered and plucked right at the market places. The average sale prices are 2660 F CFA for a chicken, 2270 F CFA for a guinea fowl, 2990 F CFA for a duck and 715 F CFA for a pigeon. The average gross gain made from the not well sold ducks is higher (p<0.001) than that from the other species. The organization of the actors and an improvement of the constraints will allow a better supply of the markets with traditional poultry. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.

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