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Garcia-Molina A.,Institute Universitari Of Neurorehabilitacio Guttmann Uab | Tirapu-Ustarroz J.,NeuroLogica | Luna-Lario P.,NeuroLogica | Ibanez J.,Programa de IDi en Neuropsicologia Clinica | Duque P.,Programa de IDi en Neuropsicologia Clinica
Revista de Neurologia | Year: 2010

Introduction. With the growth of cognitive science, the study of the cognitive components involved in solving tests to assess intelligence become especially significant. From this perspective, the g factor is conceived as the representative of the operation of high-level cognitive processes that control the computational programmes of the brain. Different names have been used to denominate the cognitive processes that underlie the g factor: control processes, executive functioning, executive control or executive functions. Development. We review the relationship between intelligence, on the one hand, and working memory and the executive functions construct, on the other. Furthermore, the article also reviews the relationship between intelligence and the prefrontal cortex, as its possible neuroanatomical substrate. Conclusions. The studies that were surveyed offer different answers to the question of whether intelligence and the executive functions are one and the same thing, the most widely accepted hypothesis being the one that sees intelligence and the executive functions as overlapping in some aspects but not in others. © 2010 revista de Neurología. Source

Kaplan E.,Boston University | Naeser M.A.,Boston University | Martin P.I.,Boston University | Ho M.,Boston University | And 4 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2010

The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter pathway traditionally considered to connect left Broca's area with posterior language zones. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in eight healthy subjects (5 M) to track pathways in the horizontal mid-portion of the AF (hAF) to subregions of Broca's area - pars triangularis (PTr) and pars opercularis (POp); and to ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) in the right and left hemispheres (RH, LH). These pathways have previously been studied in the LH, but not in the RH. Only 1/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between PTr and hAF in the RH (also, only 1/8 in the LH). In contrast to PTr, 5/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between POp and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Fiber tracts for vPMC were similar to those of POp, where 7/8 subjects showed fiber tracts between vPMC and hAF in the RH (8/8 in the LH). Our designated hAF could have included some of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) III, because it is difficult to separate the two fiber bundles. The SLF III has been previously reported to connect supramarginal gyrus with POp and vPMC in the LH. Thus, although the present DTI study showed almost no pathways between PTr and hAF in the RH (and in the LH), robust pathways were observed between POp and/or vPMC with hAF in the RH (and in LH). These results replicate previous studies for the LH, but are new, for the RH. They could contribute to better understanding of recovery in aphasia. © 2010. Source

Vidal-Pineiro D.,University of Barcelona | Martin-Trias P.,University of Barcelona | Arenaza-Urquijo E.M.,University of Barcelona | Sala-Llonch R.,University of Barcelona | And 10 more authors.
Brain Stimulation | Year: 2014

Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can affect episodic memory, one of the main cognitive hallmarks of aging, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. Objectives To evaluate the behavioral and functional impact of excitatory TMS in a group of healthy elders. Methods We applied a paradigm of repetitive TMS - intermittent theta-burst stimulation - over left inferior frontal gyrus in healthy elders (n = 24) and evaluated its impact on the performance of an episodic memory task with two levels of processing and the associated brain activity as captured by a pre and post fMRI scans. Results In the post-TMS fMRI we found TMS-related activity increases in left prefrontal and cerebellum-occipital areas specifically during deep encoding but not during shallow encoding or at rest. Furthermore, we found a task-dependent change in connectivity during the encoding task between cerebellum-occipital areas and the TMS-targeted left inferior frontal region. This connectivity change correlated with the TMS effects over brain networks. Conclusions The results suggest that the aged brain responds to brain stimulation in a state-dependent manner as engaged by different tasks components and that TMS effect is related to inter-individual connectivity changes measures. These findings reveal fundamental insights into brain network dynamics in aging and the capacity to probe them with combined behavioral and stimulation approaches. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Pena-Gomez C.,University of Barcelona | Vidal-Pineiro D.,University of Barcelona | Clemente I.C.,University of Barcelona | Pascual-Leone A.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. © 2011 Peña-Gómez et al. Source

Martin P.I.,Boston University | Treglia E.,Boston University | Naeser M.A.,Boston University | Ho M.D.,Boston University | And 5 more authors.
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate: 1) the feasibilty of administering a modified CILT (mCILT) treatment session immediately after TMS; and 2) if this combined therapy could improve naming and elicited propositional speech in chronic, nonfluent aphasia. Methods: Two chronic stroke patients with nonfluent aphasia (mild-moderate and severe) each received twenty minutes of rTMS to suppress the right pars triangularis, followed immediately by three hours of mCILT (5 days/week, 2 weeks). (Each patient had received TMS alone, 2-6 years prior.) Language evaluations were performed pre-TMS+mCILT, and post-at 1-2 months, and 6 or 16 months. Results: Both patients showed significant improvements in naming pictures, and elicited propositional speech at 1-2 months post-TMS+mCILT. The improved naming was still present at 6 months post-TMS+mCILT for P2; but not at 16 months post-TMS+mCILT for P1. Conclusions: It is feasible to administer mCILT for three hours immediately after a TMS session. It is unknown if the significant improvements in naming pictures, and elicited propositional speech were associated with the second series of TMS, or this first series of mCILT, or a combination of both. A larger, sham controlled clinical trial is warranted. © 2014 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

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