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de Moura S.C.S.R.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | da Tavares P.E.R.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Germer S.P.M.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Nisida A.L.A.C.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Kanaan A.S.,University of Campinas
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to monitor the stability of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds contained in two formulations of blackberry jam (traditional and low-sugar) during storage. For that purpose, jams were prepared with varying amounts of hydrocolloids and investigated as to pH, total soluble solids, water activity, total acidity, total anthocyanins and total polyphenols. In order to accompany and assess the levels of phenolic compounds and colour (L*, a* and b*) changes, the samples were stored for 180 days at two different temperatures (10 and 25 °C). The Arrhenius model was used to determine the relationship between the reaction rate (k) at the different storage temperatures, yielding activation energy values of 19 and 12 kcal/mol and Q 10 values of 3. 0 and 2. 0 for traditional and low-sugar jams, respectively. The results show that by the end of the storage time investigated, the anthocyanin compounds had been partially degraded, with the greatest loss being observed in traditional jam stored at 25 °C. Colour stability was also lower in traditional jam as compared to the low-sugar product. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.


Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Nester M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Efraim P.,University of Campinas | Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE) higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 μm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 μm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 μm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn), were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn). The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples.


Clerici M.T.P.S.,Federal University of Alfenas | Kallmann C.,Centro Universitario Herminio Ometto | Gaspi F.O.G.,Centro Universitario Herminio Ometto | Morgano M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2011

Fruit of wolf (Solanum lycocarpum A. St. - HILL), found in Brazilian cerrado, has been used in the initial ripening stage as flour and/or starch in popular medicine due to its hypoglycemiant action. The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of phytochemical compounds, physical, chemical and technological characteristics of fruit of wolf flour and starch in the initial ripening stage. Flour and starch were extracted using known popularly and experimental methods (with sodium bisulfite) and chemical composition and technological characteristics were analyzed. The results were comparatively assessed by Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The recommendation for use was the extraction of flour and starch products by previously removing peels and seeds of fruit of wolf. The most relevant finding in this study is the high content of fibers in flour (23. g/100. g) and high content of resistant starch (32. g/100. g) in the fraction of starch extracted from fruit of wolf, which can explain their use as hypoglycemic agent. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Pereira J.L.,University of Campinas | Fungaro M.H.,State University Londrina | Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2011

This paper reports the occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi and the presence of aflatoxins in 226 cocoa samples collected on Brazilian farms. The samples were taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. A total of 819 potentially aflatoxigenic fungi were isolated using Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce aflatoxins was determined using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of aflatoxins in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC using post-column derivatization with bromide after immunoaffinity column clean up. The aflatoxigenic fungi isolated were Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. A considerable increase in numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. In spite of the high prevalence of aflatoxigenic fungi, only low levels of aflatoxin were found in the cocoa samples, suggesting the existence of limiting factors to the accumulation of aflatoxins in the beans. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Morgano M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Rabonato L.C.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Milani R.F.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Miyagusku L.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Balian S.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Food Control | Year: 2011

In recent years, there has been increasing fish consumption in Brazil, largely due to the popularity of Japanese cuisine. No study, however, has previously assessed the presence of inorganic contaminants in species used in the preparation of Japanese food. In this paper, we determined total arsenic, cadmium, chromium, total mercury, and lead contents in 82 fish samples of Tuna (Thunnus thynnus), Porgy (Pagrus pagrus), Snook (Centropomus sp.), and Salmon (Salmo salar) species marketed in São Paulo (Brazil). Samples were mineralized in HNO 3/H 2O 2 for As, Cd, Cr and Pb, and in HNO 3/H 2SO 4/V 2O 5 for Hg. Inorganic contaminants were determined after the validation of the methodology using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES); and for Hg, an ICP-coupled hydride generator was used. Concentration ranges for elements analyzed in mg kg -1 (wet base) were as follows: Total As (0.11-10.82); Cd (0.005-0.047); Cr (0.008-0.259); Pb (0.026-0.481); and total Hg (0.0077-0.9681). As and Cr levels exceeded the maximum limits allowed by the Brazilian law (1 and 0.1 mg kg -1) in 51.2 and 7.3% of the total samples studied, respectively. The most contaminated species were porgy (As = 95% and Cr = 10%) and tuna (As 91% and Cr = 10%). An estimation of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg weekly intake was calculated considering a 60 kg adult person and a 350 g consumption of fish per week, with As and Hg elements presenting the highest contribution on diets reaching 222% of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) for As in porgy and 41% of PTWI for Hg in tuna. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Pereira J.L.,University of Campinas | Lemes D.P.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | And 2 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2012

This study investigated the occurrence of aflatoxin B 1, B 2, G 1 and G 2 and ochratoxin A in chocolate marketed in Brazil. A hundred and twenty-five samples of powdered, bitter, dark, milk and white chocolate were evaluated for mycotoxins. Ochratoxin A was the most common mycotoxin in the evaluated samples, contaminating 98% of the purchased chocolate. A co-occurrence of aflatoxins was observed in 80% of all samples evaluated. The bitter, dark and powdered chocolate samples had the largest presence of aflatoxins. On average, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in powdered, dark and bitter chocolate, respectively: 0.39; 0.34 and 0.31μg/kg. Bitter, powdered and dark chocolate had the highest aflatoxin content; an average of 0.66, 0.53 and 0.43μg/kg, respectively. This is the first report of co-occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in chocolate. The consumption of chocolate with high levels of cocoa in the formulation has been stimulated due to health benefits attributed to some cocoa components but on the other hand, these high cocoa content products tend to have the highest amount of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. To guarantee a safe consumption of chocolate, there should be a continuous monitoring of both ochratoxin and aflatoxin and more studies attempting to understand the dynamics involving mycotoxin-producing fungi and mycotoxin production in cocoa need to be carried out with the aim of preventing mycotoxin accumulation in this commodity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Andrade G.C.R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Freguglia R.M.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Furlani R.P.Z.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Torres N.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Tornisielo V.L.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society | Year: 2011

Tomato crop is frequently damaged by diseases, pests and abiotic stresses, resulting in lower yielding and loss of fruit quality. The intensive use of pesticides in tomatoes without observation of good agriculture practices and regulations has caused great concern with a probable final product contamination. The QuEChERS method of sample preparation was used for the determination of six pesticides (buprofezin, carbofuran, endosulfan-α, endosulfan-β, endosulfan sulfate and monocrotophos) in thirty three tomato samples collected from local market retailers. The method involved extraction with acetonitrile, liquid-liquid partition with addition of MgSO4 and NaCl followed by dispersive solid phase extraction using primary secondary amine sorbent and the analyses were carried out with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry equipment by ion trap. Recovery studies for different pesticides ranged from 71 to 111% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 15%. No pesticide residue was detected (> LOD) among the thirty three tomato samples analysed. ©2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Química.


Sadahira M.S.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos Ital | Lopes F.C.R.,University of Campinas | Rodrigues M.I.,Protimiza Consultoria e Treinamento em Planejamento de Experimentos e Otimizacao de Processos | Netto F.M.,University of Campinas
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2014

This study aimed at evaluating the effect of three independent variables: biopolymer concentration (egg white proteins and pectin) (2.0-4.0%, w/w); protein:pectin ratio (15:1-55:1); and temperature (70-80 C), at pH 3.0, using a central composite design on the foaming properties (overrun, drainage and bubble growth rate). Foams produced with protein:pectin ratio 15:1 showed the lowest bubble growth rate and the greatest drainage, whereas protein:pectin ratio 55:1 presented the lowest drainage. Complexes obtained with protein:pectin ratio 15:1 were close to electroneutrality and showed larger size (95.91 ± 8.19 μm) than those obtained with protein:pectin ratio 55:1 (45.92 ± 3.47 μm) not electrically neutral. Larger particles seemed to build an interfacial viscoelastic network at the air-water interface with reduced gas permeability, leading to greater stability concerning the disproportionation. Soluble complexes of smaller sizes increased viscosity leading to a low drainage of liquid and inhibiting the bubbles coalescence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


The avocado originated in America, and is considered to be one of the most productive plants per unit of cultivated area. Fruits with high lipid levels may be important raw materials for the extraction of oils containing bioactive substances that could reduce the risk of diseases. This work aimed to extract avocado oil using a mechanical process, similar to that employed for olive oil. Water was added to the crushed pulp in a 1:1 ratio and the mixture maintained at 45-50 °C for 40-60 minutes. The oil, water and solids were separated using a three phase centrifuge and the oil filtered. The physicochemical composition of the avocado and of the process byproducts was determined using official AOCS methodology, determining the protein, moisture, ash and oil contents. The fatty acid profile of the avocado oil was determined by gas chromatography, and the saponification and iodine values of the avocado oil calculated based on the fatty acid composition. The oil showed values of between 0.5 and 0.6% free fatty acids; 5.95 to 11.89 meq kg-1 of peroxides; 0.09 to 0.16% moisture; 0.96 to 1.94% of unsaponifiable matter and 74.69 to 88.16 mg kg-1 of chlorophyll.

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