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Dos Santos B.A.,University of Campinas | Campagnol P.C.B.,Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro | Pacheco M.T.B.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Fermented cooked sausages with a 50% reduction in pork back fat and addition of 0%, 3%, 6% or 9% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were produced and studied during manufacturing and storage. Their production was monitored by physicochemical (pH, water activity, weight loss, proximate composition, colour and texture profiles) and microbiological analysis (aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and total and faecal coliforms). During storage, it was evaluated the sensory properties, stability to lipid oxidation and microbiological safety. The final fat content of the control was 27.54%. F0, F3, F6 and F9 treatments had final fat contents of 17.63%, 17.55%, 17.91% and 17.59%, respectively, representing an approximately 40% reduction in the fat content. The simple reduction in pork back fat without fat substitute adversely affected the technological and sensory properties of the fermented cooked sausages, but the addition of FOS suppressed the defects caused by the fat reduction. The content of FOS did not changed during storage, indicating that this functional prebiotic compound can be used for developing of reduced fat fermented meat products. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

Gomes-Ruffi C.R.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Cunha R.H.D.,AB Brazil Industria e Comercio de Alimentos Ltda | Almeida E.L.,University of Campinas | Chang Y.K.,University of Campinas | Steel C.J.,University of Campinas
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Emulsifiers and enzymes are used as anti-staling agents in bakery products, providing increased shelf life, which is especially interesting for industrialized breads, such as pan bread. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the emulsifier sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) and of the enzyme maltogenic amylase (MALTO) on the quality of pan bread during storage. A 2 2 complete factorial experimental design was followed and the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of the addition of SSL (0-0.50 g/100 g flour) and MALTO (0-0.04 g/100 g flour) on bread quality parameters. A Control bread (without the addition of emulsifier or enzyme) was also prepared. Response surfaces and mathematical models were obtained for all the responses studied, showing the positive effect of the addition of SSL and MALTO on the increase of bread volume and the reduction of firmness, especially on Day 10. The breads with the highest total scores in the sensory evaluation were those with 0.43 g SSL/100 g flour + 0.03 g MALTO/100 g flour and with 0.50 g SSL/100 g flour + 0.02 g MALTO/100 g flour. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

dos Santos B.A.,University of Campinas | Campagnol P.C.B.,Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro | Morgano M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Meat Science | Year: 2014

Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

de la Hoz L.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos
Food chemistry | Year: 2014

The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Luo J.,TU Munich | Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Vogel R.F.,TU Munich | Niessen L.,TU Munich
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Brazil nuts have a high nutritional content and are a very important trade commodity for some Latin American countries. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites. In Brazil nuts they are produced predominantly by Aspergillus (A.) nomius and A. flavus. In the present study we applied and evaluated two sets of primers previously published for the specific detection of the two species using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Moreover, a primer set specific for A. caelatus as a frequently occurring non-aflatoxigenic member of Aspergillus section Flavi in Brazil nuts was newly developed. LAMP assays were combined with a simplified DNA release method and used for rapid identification of pure cultures and rapid detection of A. nomius and A. flavus from samples of shelled Brazil nuts. An analysis of pure cultures of 68 isolates representing the major Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nuts showed that the three LAMP assays had individual accuracies of 61.5%, 84.4%, and 93.3% for A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. caelatus, respectively when morphological identification was used as a reference. The detection limits for conidia added directly to the individual LAMP reactions were found to be 105 conidia per reaction with the primer set ID9 for A. nomius and 104 conidia per reaction with the primer set ID58 for A. flavus. Sensitivity was increased to 101 and 102 conidia per reaction for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively, when sample preparation included a spore disruption step. The results of LAMP assays obtained during the analysis of 32 Brazil nut samples from different regions of Brazil and from different steps in the production process of the commodity were compared with results obtained from mycological analysis and aflatoxin analysis of corresponding samples. Compared with mycological analysis of the samples, the Negative Predictive Values of LAMP assays were 42.1% and 12.5% while the Positive Predictive Values were 61.5% and 66.7% for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. When LAMP results were compared with the presence of aflatoxins in corresponding samples, the Negative Predictive Values were 22.2% and 44.4% and the Positive Predictive Values were 52.2% and 78.3% for aflatoxins produced by A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. The LAMP assays described in this study have been demonstrated to be a specific, sensitive and easy to use tool for the survey of Brazil nuts for contaminations with potential aflatoxin-producing A. nomius and A. flavus in low tech environments where resources may be limited. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Kiyataka P.H.M.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Dantas S.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Pallone J.A.L.,University of Campinas
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

The purpose of this paper was to assess the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging intended for contact with yoghurt and the migration of these elements using the food itself and 3% acetic acid as a food simulant in accordance to ANVISA, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. In order to perform this study, it was necessary to develop and validate a method by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. For method validation, the parameters linearity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), accuracy and precision were determined. Fifteen commercial samples of yoghurt, marketed in Campinas - São Paulo (Brazil), were used for the analysis. The packaging and yoghurt were digested in high-pressure ashing equipment (HPA) and the migration of the elements into simulant were determined directly in the solution. The validated method proved adequate and the results obtained showed that all the packaging had levels of Hg and Cd below the LOQ, corresponding to 1.0 and 1.5 μg l-1, respectively. The highest levels of As and Pb were 0.87 and 462.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The migration of these elements to the yoghurt after 45 days of contact at 4°C was below the LOQ for all the samples assessed. The results of specific migration into 3% acetic acid simulant showed the concentrations of Cd, Hg and As below 5, 5 and 10 μg kg-1, respectively, which are the maximum limits set by ANVISA. However, for three samples the packaging lid showed migration of Pb into simulant ranging from 30.6 to 40.2 μg kg-1, exceeding the limit set by ANVISA of 10 μg kg-1. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Campagnol P.C.B.,University of Campinas | Santos B.A.D.,University of Campinas | Morgano M.A.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Terra N.N.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pollonio M.A.R.,University of Campinas
Meat Science | Year: 2011

The effects of 50% replacement of NaCl by KCl and addition of the amino acids lysine and taurine and the 5'-ribonucleotide disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate on some sensory and physicochemical parameters of fermented cooked sausages were evaluated. The partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not alter the manufacturing process; however, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 0.313% and a mixture of taurine (750. mg/kg) with disodium inosinate (300. mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300. mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by KCl, allowing the fermented cooked sausages to be elaborated with reduced sodium content and high sensory quality. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association.

Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Hocking A.D.,CSIRO | Pitt J.I.,CSIRO | Fleet G.H.,University of New South Wales
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

The effect of atmosphere containing 80% CO 2 and 20% O 2 on growth of Mucor plumbeus, Fusarium oxysporum, Byssochlamys fulva, Byssochlamys nivea, Penicillium commune, Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium chevalieri and Xeromyces bisporus was investigated. Production of aflatoxin by A. flavus, patulin by B. nivea, roquefortine C by P. roqueforti, and cyclopiazonic acid by P. commune was also studied. Fungal growth was evaluated by three methods: colony diameter, hyphal length or mycelium dry weight and ergosterol content. Among the nine fungal species examined, two E. chevalieri and X. bisporus, did not grow under these conditions. In this study, fungi differed in their response to modified atmospheres in biomass, ergosterol content, mycotoxin production and morphology. Reductions of 57.8-96.9%, 73.7-99.6% and 91.5-99.9% were obtained in colony diameter, hyphal length and ergosterol content, respectively, under this atmosphere compared to air. Ergosterol content was more affected in most species than other measurements. Patulin, cyclopiazonic acid and roquefortine C were produced in this atmosphere, although levels were very low and aflatoxin was not produced at all. Growth was quite extensive as measured by colony diameters, but hyphal lengths were low and ergosterol production was also affected in all species of this study. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pereira J.L.,University of Campinas | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Pitt J.I.,CSIRO | Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

This study investigated the occurrence of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA), and the occurrence of OTA, in Brazilian cocoa beans. Two hundred and twenty two samples of cocoa were evaluated, taken at various stages of fermentation, drying and storage. Samples were collected from Bahia, the main cocoa producing region in Brazil. Fungi with the potential to produce OTA were isolated by direct plating of cocoa beans on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar after surface disinfection, and identified by standard techniques. The ability of the fungi to produce OTA was estimated using the agar plug technique and TLC. The presence of OTA in cocoa samples was determined by HPLC after immunoaffinity column clean up. The most common ochratoxigenic species found were Aspergillus carbonarius and A. niger aggregate. , with lower numbers of A. melleus, A. westerdijkiae and Av. ochraceus. A considerable increase in the numbers of these species was observed during drying and storage. OTA was found at all stages of cocoa processing, with the major incidence during drying and storage. The OTA levels found were in general low and there was a strong positive correlation between the presence of A. carbonarius and OTA contamination in the beans. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Copetti M.V.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Iamanaka B.T.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos | Pitt J.I.,CSIRO | Taniwaki M.H.,Institute Tecnologia Of Alimentos
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. © 2014 .

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