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Mendes W.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Pavao A.L.B.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Martins M.,Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca | Travassos C.,Institute Comunicacao e Informacao Cientifica e Tecnologica em Saude
Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira | Year: 2013

Objective To analyze the features of preventable adverse events (AEs) in hospitals inpatient in the State of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, in order to identify elements that serve as a substrate for priority actions aimed at improving patient safety. Methods Analysis of data from a baseline retrospective cohort study to assess the incidence of AEs in a sample of records in three teaching hospitals in the State of Rio de Janeiro to describe the features of preventable AEs. Results In a sample of 1,103 patients, were identified 65 preventable AEs of 56 patients who suffered preventable AEs. The healthcare associated infections (HAI) accounted for 24.6% of preventable AEs; surgical complications and/or anesthetic, 20.0%; damages arising from delay or failure in diagnosis and/or treatment, 18.4%, pressure ulcers, 18.4%; damage from complications of venipuncture, 7.7%; damage due to falls, 6.2%; damage as a result of the use of drugs, 4.6%. The preventable AEs were responsible for additional 373 days of hospital stay. Conclusion The HAI is the major preventable AEs, as observed in other developing countries. Despite the limitations of the study, the characterization of preventable AEs indicates that known and effective actions available to reduce HAI, such as hand hygiene, to prevent pressure ulcers, to encourage adherence to protocol and clinical guidelines and to create continuing education programs for health professionals, should compose the list of priorities of hospital managers and health professionals involved in the care of hospitalized patients. © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

Bonaldo M.C.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecular Of Flavivirus | Sequeira P.C.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Molecular Of Flavivirus | Galler R.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2014

The live-attenuated yellow fever 17D virus is one of the most outstanding human vaccines ever developed. It induces efficacious immune responses at a low production cost with a well-established manufacture process. These advantages make the YF17D virus attractive as a vector for the development of new vaccines. At the beginning of vector development studies, YF17D was genetically manipulated to express other flavivirus prM and E proteins, components of the viral envelope. While these 17D recombinants are based on the substitution of equivalent YF17D genes, other antigens from unrelated pathogens have also been successfully expressed and delivered by recombinant YF17D viruses employing alternative strategies for genetic manipulation of the YF17D genome. Herein, we discuss these strategies in terms of possibilities of single epitope or larger sequence expression and the main properties of these replication-competent viral platforms. © 2014 Landes Bioscience.

PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos and Laboratorio Of Tecnologia Recombinante
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cytotechnology | Year: 2016

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are high added value glycoproteins recommended for immunotherapy, diagnosis, and also for the treatment of bacterial infections resistant to multiple drugs such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In addition to environmental conditions related to cell cultures, the intrinsic characteristics of hybridoma cells, like the secretion stability of monoclonal antibodies by the cells through successive subcultures, are relevant for the characterization of cell lines related to the productivity of mAb. The rate of mAb production differs significantly between different cell lines and different passage numbers, and it is an important variable in characterization of cell lines. In order to find a more robust, faster-growing, and higher-productivity cell line of hybridoma, cultivations in 24-well plates were performed in different subculture periods, or cell passages (P), of hybridoma cells producing MRSA anti-PBP2a monoclonal antibodies [MRSA-antiPBP2a (mAb)]. The objective of this study was to study the effects of cell growth and production of MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb secreted by murine hybridoma cells grown in different passages as well as determine the which passages the hybridomas can be cultivated without harming their growth and productivity. So, cell growth profiles of hybridomas secreting MRSA-antiPBP2a (mAb) and the production of MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb in different subculture periods or cell passages (P) were studied. Cell growth tests, monoclonal antibody productivity, and metabolite characteristics revealed substantial differences in those cells kept between P10 and P50. Similarities in the secretion of monoclonal antibody, growth, and metabolic profiles, were noted in the MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb producing hybridoma cells kept between P10 and P20. Also, glucose consumption (g/L) and lactate production (g/L) in the latter cell cultures were monitored daily through biochemical analyzer. As of P30, it was observed a 4.4 times reduction in productivity, a 13% reduction in metabolic yield, and a significant change in cell growth. Secretion of MRSA-antiPBP2a mAb should be obtained through the culture of hybridomas up to P20 in order to keep its stability.

Nogueira R.T.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Nogueira A.R.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Pereira M.C.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Rodrigues M.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Chagas' disease is a major public health problem affecting nearly 10 million in Latin America. Despite several experimental vaccines have shown to be immunogenic and protective in mouse models, there is not a current vaccine being licensed for humans or in clinical trial against T. cruzi infection. Towards this goal, we used the backbone of Yellow Fever (YF) 17D virus, one of the most effective and well-established human vaccines, to express an immunogenic fragment derived from T. cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2). The cDNA sequence of an ASP-2 fragment was inserted between E and NS1 genes of YF 17D virus through the construction of a recombinant heterologous cassette. The replication ability and genetic stability of recombinant YF virus (YF17D/ENS1/Tc) was confirmed for at least six passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies showed that YF17D/ENS1/Tc virus elicited neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) producing-cells against the YF virus. Also, it was able to prime a CD8+ T cell directed against the transgenic T. cruzi epitope (TEWETGQI) which expanded significantly as measured by T cell-specific production of IFN-γ before and after T. cruzi challenge. However, most important for the purposes of vaccine development was the fact that a more efficient protective response could be seen in mice challenged after vaccination with the YF viral formulation consisting of YF17D/ENS1/Tc and a YF17D recombinant virus expressing the TEWETGQI epitope at the NS2B-3 junction. The superior protective immunity observed might be due to an earlier priming of epitope-specific IFN-γ-producing T CD8+ cells induced by vaccination with this viral formulation. Our results suggest that the use of viral formulations consisting of a mixture of recombinant YF 17D viruses may be a promising strategy to elicit protective immune responses against pathogens, in general. © 2013 Nogueira et al.

Azevedo A.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Yamamura A.M.Y.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Freire M.S.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Trindade G.F.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Two DNA vaccines were constructed encoding the ectodomain (domains I, II and III) of the DENV2 envelope protein (pE1D2) or only its domain III (pE2D2), fused to the human tissue plasminogen activator signal peptide (t-PA). The expression and secretion of recombinant proteins was confirmed in vitro in BHK cells transfected with the two plasmids, detected by immunofluorescence or immunoprecipitation of metabolically labeled gene products, using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against DENV2. Besides, results reveal that the ectodomain of the E protein can be efficiently expressed in vivo, in a mammalian system, without the prM protein that is hypothesized to act as a chaperonin during dengue infection. Balb/c mice were immunized with the DNA vaccines and challenged with a lethal dose of DENV2. All pE1D2-vaccinated mice survived challenge, while 45% of animals immunized with the pE2D2 died after infection. Furthermore, only 10% of pE1D2-immunized mice presented some clinical signs of infection after challenge, whereas most of animals inoculated with the pE2D2 showed effects of the disease with high morbidity degrees. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher in pE1D2-vaccinated mice than in pE2D2-immunized animals, also suggesting that the pE1D2 vaccine was more protective than the pE2D2. © 2011 Azevedo et al.

Neves P.C.C.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Santos J.R.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Tubarao L.N.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Bonaldo M.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Galler R.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most efficacious human vaccines ever made. The vaccine (YF 17D) virus induces polyvalent immune responses, with a mixed TH1/TH2 CD4+ cell profile, which results in robust T CD8+ responses and high titers of neutralizing antibody. In recent years, it has been suggested that early events after yellow fever vaccination are crucial to the development of adequate acquired immunity. We have previously shown that primary immunization of humans and monkeys with YF 17D virus vaccine resulted in the early synthesis of IFN-γ. Herein we have demonstrated, for the first time that early IFN-α production after yellow fever vaccination is a feature also of murine infection and is much more pronounced in the C57BL/6 strain compared to the BALB/c strain. Likewise, in C57BL/6 strain, we have observed the highest CD8+ T cells responses as well as higher titers of neutralizing antibodies and total anti-YF IgG. Regardless of this intense IFN-α response in mice, it was not possible to see higher titers of IgG2a in relation to IgG1 in both mice lineages. However, IgG2a titers were positively correlated to neutralizing antibodies levels, pointing to an important role of IFN-α in eliciting high quality responses against YF 17D, therefore influencing the immunogenicity of this vaccine. Copyright: © 2013 Neves et al.

Azevedo A.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Goncalves A.J.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Archer M.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Freire M.S.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The dengue envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major component of virion surface and its ectodomain is composed of domains I, II and III. This protein is the main target for the development of a dengue vaccine with induction of neutralizing antibodies. In the present work, we tested two different vaccination strategies, with combined immunizations in a prime/booster regimen or simultaneous inoculation with a DNA vaccine (pE1D2) and a chimeric yellow fever/dengue 2 virus (YF17D-D2). The pE1D2 DNA vaccine encodes the ectodomain of the envelope DENV2 protein fused to t-PA signal peptide, while the YF17D-D2 was constructed by replacing the prM and E genes from the 17D yellow fever vaccine virus by those from DENV2. Balb/c mice were inoculated with these two vaccines by different prime/booster or simultaneous immunization protocols and most of them induced a synergistic effect on the elicited immune response, mainly in neutralizing antibody production. Furthermore, combined immunization remarkably increased protection against a lethal dose of DENV2, when compared to each vaccine administered alone. Results also revealed that immunization with the DNA vaccine, regardless of the combination with the chimeric virus, induced a robust cell immune response, with production of IFN-γ by CD8+ T lymphocytes. © 2013 Azevedo et al.

PubMed | Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Yellow fever continues to be an important epidemiological problem in Africa and South America even though the disease can be controlled by vaccination. The vaccine has been produced since 1937 and is based on YFV 17DD chicken embryo infection. However, little is known about the histopathological background of virus infection and replication in this model. Here we show by morphological and molecular methods (brightfield and confocal microscopies, immunofluorescence, nested-PCR and sequencing) the kinetics of YFV 17DD infection in chicken embryos with 9 days of development, encompassing 24 to 96 hours post infection. Our principal findings indicate that the main cells involved in virus production are myoblasts with a mesenchymal shape, which also are the first cells to express virus proteins in Gallus gallus embryos at 48 hours after infection. At 72 hours post infection, we observed an increase of infected cells in embryos. Many sites are thus affected in the infection sequence, especially the skeletal muscle. We were also able to confirm an increase of nervous system infection at 96 hours post infection. Our data contribute to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of YF 17DD virus infection in Gallus gallus embryos.

Sousa A.P.B.,Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos | Moraes R.H.P.,Instituto Butantan | Mendonca R.Z.,Instituto Butantan
Cytotechnology | Year: 2015

The baculovirus Anticarsia gemmatalis nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV), a member of the family Baculoviridae, has been widely applied as a biopesticide for the control of the velvetbean caterpillar, a pest of soybean crop field. Baculoviruses are considered safe and efficient agents for this purpose, because they do not infect vertebrates, being safe for the health of humans and animals, as well as to the environment. The objective of this work was to identify proteins obtained from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph with potential application in the optimization of baculovirus AgMNPV replication in Sf9 insect cell culture. In this work the improvement of the cell culture and viral replication of the AgMNPV baculovirus was observed when Grace medium was supplemented with 10 % (v/v) Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), 1 % (v/v) hemolymph extract, or 3 % (v/v) of hemolymph fractions or hemolymph sub-fractions obtained by purifying hemolymph through High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Hemolymph presented a positive effect on the synthesis of polyhedra and enhanced baculovirus replication in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells (TCID50/mL), and led to Sf9 cell culture improvement. Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS and 1 % (v/v) hemolymph provided an increase of baculovirus replication, when the cells were infected with multiplicity of infection of 1. In this case, the baculovirus replication was 6,443.91 times greater than that obtained with the control: Grace medium supplemented with 10 % (v/v) FBS. In addition, this work suggests that hemolymph from L. obliqua could have an interesting application in biotechnology, due to an increase in the viability of the cells and virus replication. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

PubMed | Institute Tecnologia em Imunobiologicos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2016

The use of recombinant proteins may represent an alternative model to inactivated vaccines against hepatitis A virus (HAV). The present study aimed to express the VP1 protein of HAV in baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). The VP1 was expressed intracellularly with molecular mass of 35 kDa. The VP1 was detected both in the soluble fraction and in the insoluble fraction of the lysate. The extracellular expression of VP1 was also attempted, but the protein remained inside the cell. To verify if hydrophobic characteristics would also be present in the HAV structural polyprotein, the expression of P1-2A protein was evaluated. The P1-2A polyprotein remained insoluble in the cellular extract, even in the early infection stages. These results suggest that HAV structural proteins are prone to form insoluble aggregates. The low solubility represents a drawback for production of large amounts of HAV proteins in BEVS.

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