Plaza D.M.,Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute |
Martinez I.C.,CIEMAT |
Gasch G.M.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Sufrategui F.T.,CIEMAT |
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015
The goal of this case study is to determine for the first time the feasibility of using concentrated solar radiation as the source of thermal energy for the various high-temperature thermal processes involved in the manufacturing of construction ceramics. A specific test device, consisting of a 'volumetric-type' solar receiver and a treatment chamber, has been designed and built for this purpose. This has been installed and operated in the 60 kWth solar furnace at the R&D Center 'Plataforma Solar de Almería'. The methodology followed consisted of testing the device for the lowest temperature cycles first to go then for the higher ones successively. It has been concluded that the maximum temperature needed for thermal processes such as 'drying of raw materials', 'third-firing' or 'double-firing' is achievable with this solar technology (up to 1050 °C). Further development of this solar device has turned out to be necessary to meet the requirements of higher-temperature processes like the 'single-firing' one (1150 °C) and to improve other aspects like the achievable heating and cooling rates or the uniformity of the thermal treatment over the sample, as well. This project studies the energy transfer processes between a nonconventional, high-quality energy source (concentrated solar radiation), a thermal fluid and a solid matter piece in the search of very specific optical and mechanical properties which confer it a commercial value. Though it is was considered some time ago for the production of the so-called 'solar fuels' (hydrogen, pure metals, etc.), this project explores for the first time the integration of very hightemperature solar energy technology into existing ceramics manufacturing industrial process. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amoros J.L.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Mallol G.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Llorens D.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Boix J.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
And 4 more authors.
Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio | Year: 2010
An apparatus for X-Ray non destructive inspection of bulk density distribution in large ceramic tiles has been designed, built and patented. This technique has many advantages compared with other methods: it allows tile bulk density distribution to be mapped and is neither destructive nor toxic, provided the X-ray tube and detector area are shielded to prevent leakage. In the present study, this technique, whose technical feasibility and accuracy had been verified in previous studies, has been used to scan ceramic tiles formed under different industrial conditions, modifying press working parameters. The use of high-precision laser telemeters allows tile thicknesses to be mapped, facilitating the interpretation of manufacturing defects produced in pressing, which cannot be interpreted by just measuring bulk density. The bulk density distributions obtained in the same unfired and fired tiles are also compared, a possibility afforded only by this measurement method, since it is non-destructive. The comparison of both unfired and fired tile bulk density distributions allows the influence of the pressing and firing stages on tile end porosity to be individually identified.
Monfort E.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Celades I.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Gomar S.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Rueda F.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC |
Martinez J.,Institute Tecnologia Ceramica ITC
Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Ceramica y Vidrio | Year: 2011
One of the environmental impacts associated with ceramics manufacture is the air emission of acid compounds stem from the presence of impurities in the raw materials and/or fuels. The present study was undertaken to identify the significant gaseous pollutants of an acid nature, to determine their concentrations, and to obtain the characteristic emission factors in spray dryers and firing kilns. The results show that, in spray dryers, the emission levels of the different acid pollutants are far below the current emission limit values applied in the European Union (EU). In firing kilns, the most significant acid pollutant emissions, compared with the recommended EU emission limit values (ELV-BAT), correspond to HF and HCl emissions, indicating that these emissions need to be corrected by appropriate cleaning systems before such emissions are released into the air. On the other hand, the results indicate that SO2 and NOx emissions in the Castellón industrial ceramic sector lie below the ELV-BAT proposed in the European ceramic industry BREF, owing to the widespread use of natural gas as fuel and of raw materials with reduced sulphur contents.