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Faruk M.U.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Faruk M.U.,University of Nigeria | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Meme N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 6 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2010

The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added advantage compared with loose-mix and thus could be employed in situations where it is practicable. © 2010 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Faruk M.U.,University of Nigeria | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Meme N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Roffidal L.,INZO | And 3 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2010

Feed intake and performance of birds given sequential or loose-mix feeding was investigated from 19 to 42 weeks of age. A complete diet was fed as control (C). A balancer diet (50) was fed either sequentially (S50) or in a loose-mix (L50) with wheat. This diet was formulated to provide a similar nutritive value as C assuming a 50:50 diet and wheat intake. Another balancer diet (25) was fed sequentially (S25) or in a loose-mix (L25) with wheat. The diet was to provide a similar nutritive value as C assuming 75: 25 diet and wheat intakes. In sequential feeding, only wheat was fed in the morning (4h after lights-on) and the balancer diet in the late afternoon (4h before lights-off). In the loose-mix treatment, a mixture of the two diets was fed throughout the 16-h daily light. Each treatment was given ad libitum to 25 birds in individual cages. Birds fed on L25 had lower total feed intakes than those receiving C, S50 or S25. Protein intake was reduced with L25 compared to C, S50, S25 and L50. Metabolisable energy (ME) intake was, however, similar among all treatments. Egg production and weight were reduced with L25 compared to S50 and S25. Body weight (BW) was lowered with L25. However, there was high individual variation in all variables. Feeding system (sequential vs loose-mix) had no effect on ME intake. However, the loose-mix treatment reduced feed and protein intake due to lower balancer diet intake. It also resulted in low egg production, egg and BWs compared to sequential feeding. The weights of pancreas and gizzard were heavier with sequential and loose-mix compared to the control. The loose-mix treatment reduced egg-laying performance. Sequential feeding resulted in similar egg-laying performance to conventional feeding and thus could be used to advantage in situations where it is applicable. © 2010 British Poultry Science Ltd.


Traineau M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Mulsant C.,Innovation en Nutrition et Zootechnie INZO | Roffidal L.,Innovation en Nutrition et Zootechnie INZO | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Sequential feeding (SF) is an innovative system for laying hens consisting of nutrients separating energy, protein, and calcium supplies to fulfill nutrient requirements at the relevant time of day. In previous studies, hens received whole wheat in the morning and a balancer diet (rich in protein and calcium) in the afternoon. To improve SF utilization, the aim was to substitute whole wheat in the morning by an alternative energy supply: ground wheat and ground corn, with or without a proportion of whole wheat and insoluble fiber. The goal was to obtain the advantages observed in previous experiments with whole wheat [bigger gizzard, thinner hens, reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. Four hundred thirty-two ISA Brown hens were housed in collective cages from 20 to 35 wk of age divided into 8 different treatments: a continuous control diet, a sequential diet with whole wheat in the morning, 3 wheat-based diets (ground wheat, ground wheat and 20% whole wheat, and ground wheat with 5% insoluble fiber) and 3 ground corn-based (ground corn, ground corn and 20% whole wheat, and ground corn with 5% insoluble fiber) provided in the morning. All sequential regimens received the same balancer diet rich in protein and calcium in the afternoon. Whole wheat SF gave the best results with an improved FCR compared with continuous control and all other SF diets. Wheat- and corn-based diets showed intermediate results between whole wheat SF and continuous feeding. Gizzard weight was higher and hens were lighter than with conventional continuous feeding, leading to an average FCR improvement of 3.2% compared with a continuous control. Thus, it is possible in SF diets to substitute, at least partially, whole wheat by ground wheat or ground corn with added insoluble fiber or some whole wheat, allowing more flexibility and economic optimization. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Umar Faruk M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Umar Faruk M.,University of Nigeria | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi | Mallet S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2011

The impact of sequential feeding of whole or ground wheat on the performance of layer hen was investigated using ISABROWN hens from 19 to 42 weeks of age. In addition, the effect of reduced dietary energy content of a complete diet was also investigated. Four treatments were tested. Whole wheat was alternated with a protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) in a treatment (sequential whole wheat: SWW), while another treatment alternated ground wheat (sequential ground wheat: SGW) with the same balancer diet. The control (C) was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Another treatment (low energy: LE) was fed a complete diet conventionally. The diet contained lower energy (10.7 v. 11.6 MJ/kg) compared to the C. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained five birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per day) and distributed twice (2 60.5 g) at 4 and 11 h after lights on. In the sequential treatment, only wheat (whole or ground) was fed during the first distribution and the balancer diet during the second distribution. Left over feed was always removed before the next distribution. The total feed intake was not different between SWW and SGW, but the two were lower than C (P < 0.05). Wheat intake was however, lowered with SGW compared to SWW (P < 0.05). Egg production and egg mass (EM) were not different between treatments. Egg weight was lower with SGW than with SWW (P < 0.05), but the two were similar to C. Body weight (BW) was lowered (P < 0.01) with SGW relative to SWW and C, SWW BW being also lower than the C one. The efficiency of egg production was increased (P < 0.01) with the SWW and SGW relative to the control. Birds fed LE had higher feed intake (P < 0.05) but they had similar egg production and EM compared to the two sequential treatments. The efficiency of feed utilization was also reduced (P < 0.01) with LE compared to SWW and SGW. It was concluded that sequential feeding is more efficient than conventional feeding. In addition, whole wheat appeared more efficient than ground wheat in terms of egg and BW. © The Animal Consortium 2010.

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Loading Institute Technique Of Laviculture Itavi collaborators