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Rehault-Godbert S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mann K.,Max Planck Institute For Biochemie | Bourin M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bourin M.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Phocas F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Belloc C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bidanel J.,IFIP Institute du Porc | Delaby L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 15 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could be used more effectively if they benefited from the scientific and technical resources currently available for more common breeds. Last but not least, public policies need to enable improved information concerning the genetic resources and breeding tools available for the agroecological management of livestock production systems, and facilitate its assimilation by farmers and farm technicians. © The Animal Consortium 2016

Meda B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Meda B.,Agrocampus Ouest | Hassouna M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hassouna M.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 5 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2011

Poultry production has been identified as a major producer of NH 3 and, to a lesser extent, of greenhouse gases (GHGs) mainly by national emissions inventories. However, since most national inventories are based on average emission factors for each type of animal ('tier 1' approach), the factors that influence these emissions (through breeding and manure-management practices) are not taken into account. The first step to improve inventories and propose mitigation options (e.g. best management practices, innovative systems) is a better understanding of the drivers of gaseous emissions and the identification of key factors for the mitigation of NH 3 and GHG emissions. This paper presents a literature review of NH 3 and GHG emissions from poultry housing, with a focus on the influence of practices and rearing conditions. It appears that flock-management practices (e.g. dietary practices, slaughtering age) and manure management (e.g. manure removal frequency, chemical treatment of litter) are presented as efficient ways to reduce emissions. Environmental conditions (e.g. ventilation rates, temperature) influence emissions; however, it was not possible to assess the effects of different combinations of these factors (compensatory or synergistic). Some factors, such as stocking density, which may play a significant role, were not studied. Modelling approaches that integrate these key factors with climate factors can be used to update emission factors in emissions inventories, consider national variability and uncertainties in mitigation scenarios, test synergistic and compensatory effects and avoid pollution swapping. Further research must be carried out to check the validity of emission factors and modelling parameters at a national scale. © 2011 World's Poultry Science Association.

Guardia S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lessire M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Corniaux A.,Provimi France | Metayer-Coustard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The poultry meat industry is faced with various quality issues related to variations in the ultimate pH of breast meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to control breast ultimate pH by distributing finishing diets varying in amino acid (AA) and energy content for a short period before slaughter. Experimental diets were distributed to PM3 broilers on the last 3 d before slaughter (36 d of age). They consisted of a control (C) diet (3,150 kcal/kg; 200 g/kg of CP; 10.0 g/kg of true digestible Lys) with adequate amounts of AA other than Lys, 6 diets isocaloric to the control diet including 3 Lys-deficient (8.0 g/kg) diets with an adequate (Lys-/AA), low (Lys-/ AA-), or high (Lys-/AA+) amount of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, and 3 Lys-rich (12.0 g/kg) diets with an adequate (Lys+/AA), low (Lys+/ AA-), or high (Lys+/AA+) amount of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, and 2 diets isoproteic to C with a high (3,300 kcal/kg, E+) or low (3,000 kcal/kg, E-) energy content. Broiler feed consumption and growth performance were slightly affected by AA and energy content during the finishing period. Feed intake (33-36 d) was lower with the Lys+/AA+ and E+, and FCR between 24 and 36 d was higher with the Lys-/AA- and E- than with the C diet. Body weight at d 36 was lower in Lys-/AA-, Lys+/AA+, and E+ than in C, whereas the breast meat yield and abdominal fatness were not affected by diet. Lower pH values were observed in broilers fed Lys-deficient diets containing a high amount of other AA (Lys-/AA+) than in broilers fed diets containing low (AA-) or adequate (AA) amounts of other AA. This study shows that it is possible to alter the pH of breast meat by changing AA profile over a short period before slaughter, with limited impact on broiler growth and carcass composition. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Lecuelle S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lecuelle S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Chagneau A.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2010

Poultry receive different diets during their rearing but these changes can result in a major reduction in feed intake and subsequently in growth. This problem is widespread in turkeys, especially with feed changes from crumbs to pellets. This experiment aimed to analyse behaviour during this change-over and identify the respective cues involved. Moreover, because pellet colour and hardness have been shown to influence feeding behaviour, differences in these cues were used to investigate their impact on behaviour during the change-over.Ninety-six caged turkeys were fed with crumbs until 28 days of age. They were divided into five groups: a control group that received crumbs throughout the experiment and four experimental groups each receiving one of four pellet types contrasting in colour and hardness. Feeds were distributed at the beginning of the light period and feed intake was measured every 20. min for 2. h on three different days: before feed transition (D. -. 1), during change-over from crumbs to pellets (D0) and 24. h after transition (D. +. 1). Animals were filmed two minutes each day at the beginning of the light period.Feed intake significantly decreased within the first 20. min of change-over (D0) in experimental birds and was lower than for controls. This drop disappeared after 24. h. Feed ingestion behaviours (open-beak pecking and swallowing) were lower on D0 than on D. -. 1 and D. +. 1, whereas exploration of the feed was higher. The delay between accessing the feed for the first time and the first peck was two times higher on D0 than D. -. 1 indicating that visual cues induced neophobia in touching feed. Birds reduced swallowing behaviour and dropped feed more often on D0 than on D. -. 1 supporting the idea that touch appears to reduce ingestion behaviour. However, pellets with different hardness and colour induced similar behavioural changes. The birds that used a closed beak on their first contact with the pellets had a lower feed intake during the first 20. min and a longer delay before swallowing than those that pecked with their beak open.This study demonstrates significant short-term reactions during feed transition related to distal and proximal cues of the food particles. It also highlights different feeding behaviours according to birds, and demonstrates individual sensitivity to feed change. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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