Institute Technique Of Laviculture

Nouzilly, France

Institute Technique Of Laviculture

Nouzilly, France
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Lecuelle S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lecuelle S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Chagneau A.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2010

Poultry receive different diets during their rearing but these changes can result in a major reduction in feed intake and subsequently in growth. This problem is widespread in turkeys, especially with feed changes from crumbs to pellets. This experiment aimed to analyse behaviour during this change-over and identify the respective cues involved. Moreover, because pellet colour and hardness have been shown to influence feeding behaviour, differences in these cues were used to investigate their impact on behaviour during the change-over.Ninety-six caged turkeys were fed with crumbs until 28 days of age. They were divided into five groups: a control group that received crumbs throughout the experiment and four experimental groups each receiving one of four pellet types contrasting in colour and hardness. Feeds were distributed at the beginning of the light period and feed intake was measured every 20. min for 2. h on three different days: before feed transition (D. -. 1), during change-over from crumbs to pellets (D0) and 24. h after transition (D. +. 1). Animals were filmed two minutes each day at the beginning of the light period.Feed intake significantly decreased within the first 20. min of change-over (D0) in experimental birds and was lower than for controls. This drop disappeared after 24. h. Feed ingestion behaviours (open-beak pecking and swallowing) were lower on D0 than on D. -. 1 and D. +. 1, whereas exploration of the feed was higher. The delay between accessing the feed for the first time and the first peck was two times higher on D0 than D. -. 1 indicating that visual cues induced neophobia in touching feed. Birds reduced swallowing behaviour and dropped feed more often on D0 than on D. -. 1 supporting the idea that touch appears to reduce ingestion behaviour. However, pellets with different hardness and colour induced similar behavioural changes. The birds that used a closed beak on their first contact with the pellets had a lower feed intake during the first 20. min and a longer delay before swallowing than those that pecked with their beak open.This study demonstrates significant short-term reactions during feed transition related to distal and proximal cues of the food particles. It also highlights different feeding behaviours according to birds, and demonstrates individual sensitivity to feed change. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Guardia S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lessire M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Corniaux A.,Provimi France | Metayer-Coustard S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The poultry meat industry is faced with various quality issues related to variations in the ultimate pH of breast meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility to control breast ultimate pH by distributing finishing diets varying in amino acid (AA) and energy content for a short period before slaughter. Experimental diets were distributed to PM3 broilers on the last 3 d before slaughter (36 d of age). They consisted of a control (C) diet (3,150 kcal/kg; 200 g/kg of CP; 10.0 g/kg of true digestible Lys) with adequate amounts of AA other than Lys, 6 diets isocaloric to the control diet including 3 Lys-deficient (8.0 g/kg) diets with an adequate (Lys-/AA), low (Lys-/ AA-), or high (Lys-/AA+) amount of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, and 3 Lys-rich (12.0 g/kg) diets with an adequate (Lys+/AA), low (Lys+/ AA-), or high (Lys+/AA+) amount of other essential AA calculated in relation to Lys, and 2 diets isoproteic to C with a high (3,300 kcal/kg, E+) or low (3,000 kcal/kg, E-) energy content. Broiler feed consumption and growth performance were slightly affected by AA and energy content during the finishing period. Feed intake (33-36 d) was lower with the Lys+/AA+ and E+, and FCR between 24 and 36 d was higher with the Lys-/AA- and E- than with the C diet. Body weight at d 36 was lower in Lys-/AA-, Lys+/AA+, and E+ than in C, whereas the breast meat yield and abdominal fatness were not affected by diet. Lower pH values were observed in broilers fed Lys-deficient diets containing a high amount of other AA (Lys-/AA+) than in broilers fed diets containing low (AA-) or adequate (AA) amounts of other AA. This study shows that it is possible to alter the pH of breast meat by changing AA profile over a short period before slaughter, with limited impact on broiler growth and carcass composition. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Vasai F.,Institute Pluridisciplinaire Of Recherche Sur Lenvironnement | Brugirard Ricaud K.,Institute Pluridisciplinaire Of Recherche Sur Lenvironnement | Cauquil L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cauquil L.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 8 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

The supplementation with Lactobacillus sakei as probiotic on the ileal and cecal microbiota of mule ducks during overfeeding was investigated using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and real-time PCR. The ducks were overfed with or without L. sakei for 12 d with 56% ground corn and 42% whole corn. Samples were collected before the overfeeding period (at 12 wk), at 13 wk (meal 12 of overfeeding), and at 14 wk (meal 24), 3 h postfeeding. Whatever the digestive segment and the level of intake, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in the bacterial community of mule ducks (at least 90%). Before overfeeding, ileal samples were dominated by Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Gammaproteobacteria (80% and up), and cecal samples by Bacteroidia and Clostridia (around 85%). The richness and diversity decreased in the ileum and increased in the ceca after overfeeding. Overfeeding increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and especially the Lactobacillus group in ileal samples. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling profiles separated the bacterial communities with respect to overfeeding only in cecal samples. Richness indicators decreased after L. sakei has been added at mid-overfeeding only in the ileum. In the ceca, the decrease of these indexes only occurred at the end of overfeeding. The addition of L. sakei triggers major changes in the ileum, whereas the ceca are not affected. Lactobacillus sakei decreased the relative abundance of Bacteroides at mid-overfeeding and the relative abundance of Enterobacteria at the end of overfeeding in the ileum. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Rehault-Godbert S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Labas V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Helloin E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Herve-Grepinet V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Ovalbumin family contains three proteins with high sequence similarity: ovalbumin, ovalbumin-related protein Y (OVAY), and ovalbumin-related protein X (OVAX). Ovalbumin is the major egg white protein with still undefined function, whereas the biological activity of OVAX and OVAY has not yet been explored. Similar to ovalbumin and OVAY, OVAX belongs to the ovalbumin serine protease inhibitor family (ov-serpin). We show that OVAX is specifically expressed by the magnum tissue, which is responsible for egg white formation. OVAX is also the main heparin-binding protein of egg white. This glycoprotein with a predicted reactive site at Lys367-His368 is not able to inhibit trypsin, plasmin, or cathepsin G with or without heparin as a cofactor. Secondary structure of OVAX is similar to that of ovalbumin, but the three-dimensional model of OVAX reveals the presence of a cluster of exposed positive charges, which potentially explains the affinity of this ov-serpin for heparin, as opposed to ovalbumin. Interestingly, OVAX, unlike ovalbumin, displays antibacterial activities against both Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica sv. Enteritidis. These properties partly involve heparin-binding site(s) of the molecule as the presence of heparin reverses its anti- Salmonella but not its anti-Listeria potential. Altogether, these results suggest that OVAX and ovalbumin, although highly similar in sequence, have peculiar sequential and/or structural features that are likely to impact their respective biological functions. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Rehault-Godbert S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mann K.,Max Planck Institute For Biochemie | Bourin M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bourin M.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Lecuelle S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lecuelle S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouvarel I.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Chagneau A.M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Turkeys may reduce their feed intake because of neophobia toward a new diet; however, their feeding behavior is not well known. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of diet color on behavior and feed intake in turkeys. For 2 wk, 2 groups of 1-day-old turkey chicks were fed diets varying in color but of the same composition: light-colored crumbles (LC group) or dark-colored crumbles (DC group). Both groups (total n = 144) were then fed a novel diet of green crumbles for the next 2 wk. On d 30, the original groups were each divided into 3 groups and received light, dark, or green pellets. We postulated that neophobia on d 30 would be reduced for chicks fed 1) green pellets compared with diets of other colors because of the effect of recent experience, and 2) a diet of a color that was previously encountered over the first 2 wk of life. Behavior and feed intake were measured on the days before and during each feed transition at 5 min after the changeover feed to observe the short-term reaction. On the first transition day, birds in the LC group decreased their feed intake significantly at 5 min, unlike birds in the DC group, which increased their feed intake. Exploratory behavior increased in both groups when they received green crumbles on the transition day, indicating a response to the color. The changeover to pellets induced a reduction in feed intake in all groups at 5 min, but, in line with our first hypothesis, behavioral changes were less pronounced in birds receiving green pellets. However, turkeys in the DC group did not eat more dark-colored pellets than those in the other groups, and turkeys in the LC group did not eat more light-colored pellets. In the present experiment, we conclude that previous visual experience did not reduce subsequent feed neophobia but that color continuity facilitated a diet change from one feed form to another. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Meda B.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Meda B.,Agrocampus Ouest | Hassouna M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Hassouna M.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 5 more authors.
World's Poultry Science Journal | Year: 2011

Poultry production has been identified as a major producer of NH 3 and, to a lesser extent, of greenhouse gases (GHGs) mainly by national emissions inventories. However, since most national inventories are based on average emission factors for each type of animal ('tier 1' approach), the factors that influence these emissions (through breeding and manure-management practices) are not taken into account. The first step to improve inventories and propose mitigation options (e.g. best management practices, innovative systems) is a better understanding of the drivers of gaseous emissions and the identification of key factors for the mitigation of NH 3 and GHG emissions. This paper presents a literature review of NH 3 and GHG emissions from poultry housing, with a focus on the influence of practices and rearing conditions. It appears that flock-management practices (e.g. dietary practices, slaughtering age) and manure management (e.g. manure removal frequency, chemical treatment of litter) are presented as efficient ways to reduce emissions. Environmental conditions (e.g. ventilation rates, temperature) influence emissions; however, it was not possible to assess the effects of different combinations of these factors (compensatory or synergistic). Some factors, such as stocking density, which may play a significant role, were not studied. Modelling approaches that integrate these key factors with climate factors can be used to update emission factors in emissions inventories, consider national variability and uncertainties in mitigation scenarios, test synergistic and compensatory effects and avoid pollution swapping. Further research must be carried out to check the validity of emission factors and modelling parameters at a national scale. © 2011 World's Poultry Science Association.


Lecuelle S.,Institute Technique Of Laviculture | Lecuelle S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Leterrier C.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Chagneau A.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 5 more authors.
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2011

When exposed to a new feed, farm birds are commonly reluctant to eat this feed. This phenomenon, called feed neophobia, could be reduced by exposing young animals to a variety of novel feeds. We investigated whether previous experience with a variety of feed colours could reduce food neophobia in turkeys. We hypothesised that both greater variety in visual experience and frequency of changes would increase the acceptance of novel feeds. To test this hypothesis, hatchling turkeys were exposed to a 28-day feeding regime differing in feed colours and frequency of feeding transitions. There were 3 experimental groups: one group was exposed to only one colour of feed (C0 group); the second group was exposed to green and red feeds on alternate weeks (low change rate: LC group) and the third group was exposed to green and red feeds changed randomly each day (high change rate: HC). As the contrast between the novel colour and the familiar feed could also influence bird responses, two subgroups were constituted within each experimental group: one receiving green feed and the other red feed before the novel feed test (i.e. C0 red, C0 green; LC red, LC green; HC red, HC green). From D29 to D31, all birds were exposed to blue, light-green or white novel feeds for 5. min each. Short-term feed intake (5. min) was measured the day before change-over and at each change-over on the three subsequent test-days. All groups were found to eat less of the novel feed than the familiar feed but this difference varied according to the 28-day feeding regime and the feed received immediately prior to testing, suggesting a colour contrast effect. The effect of visual experience with a variety of feed colours on neophobia was observed only when there was a marked contrast of colour with the feed received prior to testing which could be explained by an effect of memory on discrimination. When birds had been exposed to LC schedules, this visual experience resulted in the most significant decrease in neophobia. We conclude that changes in diet colour induce various levels of neophobia in turkeys which depend on the visual contrast between the new diet and that of the previous day, and the alternation rate of the visual experience. These results suggest that in production systems, the use of early visual experience with a variety of feed colours could reduce neophobia problems during change-over. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Bertin A.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Calandreau L.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Arnould C.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | Nowak R.,CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors | And 4 more authors.
Ethology | Year: 2010

In several mammalian species, prenatal exposure to odours can elicit later positive consummatory behaviour in response to substrates bearing that odorant. In birds, the sense of smell has been considerably underestimated, and very little is known about the effects of early sensory experience on the regulation of feeding behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that the feeding behaviour of the domestic chicken could be regulated by olfactory learning during the embryonic life. To that end, chicken embryos were exposed to an olfactory stimulus (blend of essential oil of orange and nature identical vanillin) from embryonic day (ED) 12 to ED20, and chicks were tested between 4 and 9 d of age. In short-term choice tests, at day 4 and 5, chickens previously exposed to a low concentration (LC) of the olfactory stimulus spent a higher proportion of time eating a familiar or an unfamiliar food bearing the olfactory stimulus compared to non-exposed control chickens. Conversely, chickens previously exposed to a high concentration (HC) of the olfactory stimulus were found to avoid all foods bearing the olfactory stimulus. On a 24- h time scale at day 7-8, LC and HC birds, but not controls, ingest significantly less familiar food containing the olfactory stimulus. This result indicated a long-term effect of the early olfactory experience on feeding preferences. We demonstrated that chickens can utilize information from their pre-hatch chemosensory environment to guide their later feeding behaviour. A pre-hatch effect of the intensity of odour signals in the regulation of feeding behaviour is reported here for the first time. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


PubMed | Institute Technique Of Laviculture
Type: Controlled Clinical Trial | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2010

Turkeys may reduce their feed intake because of neophobia toward a new diet; however, their feeding behavior is not well known. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of diet color on behavior and feed intake in turkeys. For 2 wk, 2 groups of 1-day-old turkey chicks were fed diets varying in color but of the same composition: light-colored crumbles (LC group) or dark-colored crumbles (DC group). Both groups (total n = 144) were then fed a novel diet of green crumbles for the next 2 wk. On d 30, the original groups were each divided into 3 groups and received light, dark, or green pellets. We postulated that neophobia on d 30 would be reduced for chicks fed 1) green pellets compared with diets of other colors because of the effect of recent experience, and 2) a diet of a color that was previously encountered over the first 2 wk of life. Behavior and feed intake were measured on the days before and during each feed transition at 5 min after the changeover feed to observe the short-term reaction. On the first transition day, birds in the LC group decreased their feed intake significantly at 5 min, unlike birds in the DC group, which increased their feed intake. Exploratory behavior increased in both groups when they received green crumbles on the transition day, indicating a response to the color. The changeover to pellets induced a reduction in feed intake in all groups at 5 min, but, in line with our first hypothesis, behavioral changes were less pronounced in birds receiving green pellets. However, turkeys in the DC group did not eat more dark-colored pellets than those in the other groups, and turkeys in the LC group did not eat more light-colored pellets. In the present experiment, we conclude that previous visual experience did not reduce subsequent feed neophobia but that color continuity facilitated a diet change from one feed form to another.

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