Raynal-Ljutovac K.,Institute Technique du Lait et des Produits Laitiers |
Lagriftoul G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Sciences des Aliments | Year: 2010
Small ruminants show specificities in terms of production of milk, protein and fat contents, and lipolysis levels, which are inherent in breeding systems, the number and size of animals, their genetic heritage, feeding and seasonality. Specific responses to feeding have been noticed especially on the profiles of fatty acids of nutritional interest (CLA, omega 3.,.). Nevertheless, whatever the answers, milk fat from small ruminants is characterized by significant levels of short-and medium-chain saturated fatty acids, with present nutritional and health benefits, and also different sizes of fat globules. The high polymorphism of the caprine as1 casein, which directly affects the protein content, also impacts the fat content, the size of fat globules and the lipolysis level. With regard to the use of milk from small ruminants, 98 % of the volume is turned into cheeses, most often without standardization of the fat. The fatty acid profiles from milk and cheese are thus similar implying that any improvement on the quality of the milk fat is directly transfered to the cheese. However, the specific technology, including storage, related to the seasonality can contribute to alter the nutritional and sensorial quality of fat (e.g. oxidation). The relationship between the structure of milk fat and its nutritional qualities is complex and constitute one of the most important current research thematic, especially when one takes into account the matrix effects on the bioavailability of the fat © Lavoisier - La photocopie non autorisee est un delit.
Structural and molecular organization of lipids in food: Possible impacts on their digestion and assimilation by humans [Organisation structurale et moléculaire des lipides dans les aliments : impacts possibles sur leur digestion et leur assimilation par lHomme]
Raynal-Ljutovac K.,Institute Technique du Lait et des Produits Laitiers |
Bouvier J.,Institute Technique du Lait et des Produits Laitiers |
Gayet C.,Cniel |
Simon N.,Onidol |
And 19 more authors.
OCL - Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides | Year: 2011
From the nutrition point of view, lipids are primarily considered as energy suppliers, their dietary intake having to be limited. In fact, lipids are sources of various fatty acids, and dietary recommendations include the required daily intakes in different fatty acids (fatty acid profile). Beyond these quantitative aspects, fatty acids are part of larger molecules, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), that are organized in supramolecular structures as for example fat crystals and lipid droplets. Recent advances in nutrition research have demonstrated that these structures, and lipid organization in food matrices, influence digestibility and metabolism of fatty acids. Therefore, the members of the technological network Listral propose a synthesis of the knowledge about the influence of molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids on digestion and metabolic fate of dietary fatty acids originating from for the main food industry sectors. Fatty acids are mainly provided in the diet in the form of TAG, or phospholipids (PL) where they are esterified in external (sn-1, sn-3) or internal (sn-2) position of the glycerol backbone. They can also be found as ethyl esters (EE) in specific formulations. These molecular characteristics of the lipid molecules affect their hydrolysis and their absorption rate but also their metabolism in indifferent organs, as assessed in studies often using inter esterified fat sources. The results depend on the types of fatty acids (saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids) but also on the model used for the studies: in vitro or in vivo studies ; animal model, human newborn or adult, either healthy or exhibiting some diseases. Among others, it was found that the crystal form and fat melting point as affected by the fatty acid profiles and the lipid molecular structures directly impact fatty acid absorption kinetics through modifications of lipolytic enzyme activities. However, in these studies, the relative effect of the thermal properties of lipids and the proportion of saturated fatty acids chains in sn-2 position were hardly distinguished. Supramolecular structures, namely type and size of the fat droplets and their interfacial composition, of lipids, either in their native forms or obtained after food processes, also affect the digestibility and absorption of lipids. This aspect is reviewed with specific focus on dairy, marine, meat, oil plant and egg products. The impact of other nutritional components present in these food matrices on the absorption of lipids is also discussed.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: KBBE-2007-2-3-05 | Award Amount: 8.52M | Year: 2009
DREAM a trans-disciplinary partnership involving two multinationals and nine countries will develop realistic, physical and mathematical, food models for use as standards to be exploited across all major food categories to facilitate development of common approaches to risk/benefit assessment and nutritional quality in food research and industry. These models will enhance knowledge on process-structure-property relationships from the molecular to macroscopic level and facilitate creation of generic food matrices with functional and nutritional properties based on tailored microstructure. To address as wide a range of food products as possible, 4 generic structure groups will be used representing plant-based foods; meat; dairy and bakery products; for each, the most relevant types of products will be selected using criteria including structural characteristics and industrial and societal needs, ensuring that benefits/risks, economic importance and sustainability are taken into consideration. The model development will be conducted in close collaboration with food manufacturers through a specification-based approach. The objective of the mathematical approach is to realise a complete dynamic description of food processing using an innovative strategy exploiting most recent advances in cognitive and complex system sciences to allow the generalised methodologies to be extended to other food products. Models and protocols developed within DREAM will be disseminated by expert partners via existing channels (EFFoST, ETP and national platforms, CIAA and national federations, EFSA, national regulatory bodies) to be used by scientists, SMEs and multinationals to improve nutritional quality and benefit-risk management of the food chain. The involvement of ETP Food for Life will ensure the approach is extended to all foods by 2015. Training for young members of DREAM will equip them with scientific and other complementary skills necessary for career development within the ERA.
Raynal-Ljutovac K.,Institute technique du lait et des produits laitiers |
Le Pape M.,Association Nationale Interprofessionnelle Caprine ANICAP |
Gaborit P.,Institute technique du lait et des produits laitiers |
Barrucand P.,Institute technique du lait et des produits laitiers
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2011
This paper provides an overview of the current French market for goat milk cheeses as well as recent data concerning the perception of these products by consumers, whose consumption patterns have changed considerably over the past two decades. It also incorporates the key studies and the recent works in the field of nutritional and sensory quality of French cheeses made from goat milk. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Adt I.,University of Lyon |
Dupas C.,University of Lyon |
Boutrou R.,Agrocampus Ouest |
Oulahal N.,University of Lyon |
And 4 more authors.
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2011
Caseinophosphopeptides (CPPs) are bioactive peptides originating from proteolysis of caseins, the main proteins of milk. In this study, the generation of CCPs during Beaufort cheese making and by in vitro simulated gastro-intestinal hydrolysis using pepsin and pancreatin were assessed using selective precipitation and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy-two water-soluble CPPs, mainly originating from β-casein, were identified in Beaufort cheese, while 79 CPPs, mainly generated from αs1-caseins, were obtained from enzymatic hydrolysates. Most of the peptides generated by the action of digestive enzymes were monophosphorylated; however, 17 out of the 23 polyphosphorylated CPPs identified from digested Beaufort cheese still contained the characteristic cluster sequence Ser(P)-Ser(P)-Ser(P)-Glu-Glu, providing calcium-binding properties to CPPs. The content of CPPs in Beaufort cheese before and after the action of digestive enzymes was estimated to be 230 and 275 mg per 100 g of fresh cheese, respectively. The action of proteolytic digestive enzymes on CPPs is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.