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Schaschl H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Suchentrunk F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Morris D.L.,Kings College London | Slimen H.B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: In mammals, males typically have shorter lives than females. This difference is thought to be due to behavioural traits which enhance competitive abilities, and hence male reproductive success, but impair survival. Furthermore, in many species males usually show higher parasite burden than females. Consequently, the intensity of selection for genetic factors which reduce susceptibility to pathogens may differ between sexes. High variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is believed to be advantageous for detecting and combating the range of infectious agents present in the environment. Increased heterozygosity at these immune genes is expected to be important for individual longevity. However, whether males in natural populations benefit more from MHC heterozygosity than females has rarely been investigated. We investigated this question in a long-term study of free-living Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), a polygynous mountain ungulate. Results: Here we show that male chamois survive significantly (P = 0.022) longer if heterozygous at the MHC class II DRB locus, whereas females do not. Improved survival of males was not a result of heterozygote advantage per se, as background heterozygosity (estimated across twelve microsatellite loci) did not change significantly with age. Furthermore, reproductively active males depleted their body fat reserves earlier than females leading to significantly impaired survival rates in this sex (P < 0.008). This sex-difference was even more pronounced in areas affected by scabies, a severe parasitosis, as reproductively active males were less likely to survive than females. However, we did not find evidence for a survival advantage associated with specific MHC alleles in areas affected by scabies. Conclusions: Increased MHC class II DRB heterozygosity with age in males, suggests that MHC heterozygous males survive longer than homozygotes. Reproductively active males appear to be less likely to survive than females most likely because of the energetic challenge of the winter rut, accompanied by earlier depletion of their body fat stores, and a generally higher parasite burden. This scenario renders the MHC-mediated immune response more important for males than for females, which implies a relatively stronger selection pressure on MHC genes in males than in females. © 2012 Schaschl et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Akkari H.,Manouba University | Rtibi K.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | B'chir F.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyses Physico Chimiques Pole Technologique Of Sidi Thabet | Rekik M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2014

Occurrence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia campestris in comparison to albendazole against Haemonchus contortus of sheep. In this respect, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of A. campestris were investigated on eggs and adults of Haemonchus contortus. Chemical analyses revealed that overall profile of both extracts samples were dominated by flavonoids among them quercetin and apigenin derivatives were the most abundant phenolics constituents. Both extract types completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. Lethal concentration 50% of A. campestris ethanolic and aqueous extracts were 0.83 and 1.00 mg/ml respectively (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous extract in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent activity was also observed for both extract. After 8 and 24 h of exposure, the ethanolic extract induced 91.3 and 100% mortality at the highest tested concentration respectively, while the aqueous extract induced 3.22 and 70.96% at the same concentration respectively. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that A. campestris possesses in vitro anti-Haemonchus contortus properties. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media. Source


Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Sani M.,University of Monastir | Ghanem-Boughanmi N.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Aouani E.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with resveratrol (RVT) protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and mortality as well as the mechanism involved in such protection. Mice were divided into three groups: control, LPS and LPS. +. RVT. Animals were pre-treated with RVT during 7. days. The survival rate was monitored over 48. h after LPS administration. Survival animals were sacrificed, their kidney, liver and brain homogenized for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity, free iron and nitric oxide (NO) determination. Plasma was also processed for transaminases, creatinine, urea, NO and iron measurement. Pre-treatment with resveratrol greatly improved the survival rate of LPS-treated mice. Resveratrol counteracted LPS-induced tissue lipoperoxidation and catalase activity depletion. The polyphenol abrogated LPS-induced liver and kidney dysfunction as increased creatinine and urea as well as transaminases activities. In addition, pre-treatment with resveratrol abrogated LPS-induced tissues and plasma NO elevation and iron sequestration from plasma to tissue compartment. These data suggest that resveratrol prevents LPS-induced lethality and that its mode of action may involve differential iron deposition via iron shuttling proteins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Sani M.,University of Carthage | Yacoubi M.T.,University of Sousse | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a glycolipid component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria inducing deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. Endotoxemia-induced hepatotoxicity is characterized by disturbed intracellular redox balance, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation inducing DNA, proteins and membrane lipid damages. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4' trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin polyphenol exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of subacute pre-treatment with this natural compound on LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Resveratrol counteracted LPS-induced lipoperoxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but slightly glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The polyphenol also abrogated LPS-induced liver and plasma nitric oxide (NO) elevation and attenuated endotoxemia-induced hepatic tissue injury. Importantly resveratrol treatment abolished LPS-induced iron sequestration from plasma to liver compartment. Our data suggest that resveratrol is capable of alleviating LPS-induced hepatotoxicity and that its mode of action may involve differential iron compartmentalization via iron shuttling proteins. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source


Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Selmi S.,Laboratore Of Physiologie Animale | Rtibi K.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | And 3 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods. Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO).Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results: The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions: These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. © 2013 Sebai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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