Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja

Béja, Tunisia

Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja

Béja, Tunisia
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Ben Slimen H.,Tunis el Manar University | Ben Slimen H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Schaschl H.,University of Vienna | Knauer F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Suchentrunk F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2017

Background: Recent studies of selection on mitochondrial (mt) OXPHOS genes suggest adaptation due mainly to environmental variation. In this context, Tunisian hares that display several external phenotypes with phylogenetically rather homogenous gene pool and shallow population structure provide a good precondition to detect positive selection on mt genes related to environmental/climatic variation, specifically ambient temperature and precipitation. Results: We used codon-based methods along with population genetic data to test for positive selection on ATPase synthase 6 (ATP6) and NADH dehydrogenase 2 (ND2) of cape hares (Lepus capensis) collected along a steep ecological gradient in Tunisia. We found significantly higher differentiation at the ATP6 locus across Tunisia, with sub-humid Mediterranean, semi-arid, and arid Sahara climate than for fourteen unlinked supposedly neutrally evolving nuclear microsatellites and mt control region sequences. This suggested positive selection on ATP6 sequences, which was confirmed by several codon-based tests for one sequence site that together with a second site translated into four different amino acids. Positive selection on ND2 sequences was also confirmed by several codon-based tests. The corresponding frequencies of the two most prevalent variants at each locus varied significantly across climate regions, and our logistic general linear models of occurrence of those proteins indicated significant effects of mean annual temperature for ATP6 and mean minimum temperature of the coldest month of the year for ND2, independent of geographical location, annual precipitation, and the respective co-occurring protein at the second locus. Moreover, presence of the ancestral ATP6 protein, as inferred from phylogenetic networks, was positively affected by the simultaneous presence of the derived ND2 protein and vice versa, independent of temperature, precipitation, or geographic location. Finally, we obtained a significant coevolution signal for the ancestral ATP6 and derived ND2 sequences and vice versa. Conclusions: positive selection was strongly suggested by the population genetic approach and the codon-based tests in both mtDNA genes. Moreover, the two most prevalent proteins at the ATP6 locus were distributed at significantly varying frequencies across the study area with a significant effect of mean annual temperature on the occurrence of the ATP6 proteins independent of geographical coordinates and the co-occuring ND2 protein variant. For ND2, occurrence of the two most frequent protein variants was significantly influenced by the mean minimum temperature of the coldest month, independent of the co-occurring ATP6 protein variant and geographical coordinates. This strongly suggests direct involvement of ambient temperature in the adaptation of the studied mtOXPHOS genes. © 2017 The Author(s).

Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Jabri M.-A.,University of Carthage | Jabri M.-A.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2014

Ethnopharmacological relevance Matricaria recutita L. (Chamomile) has been widely used in the Tunisian traditional medicine for the treatment of digestive system disorders. The present work aims to investigate the protective effects of chamomile decoction extract (CDE) against castor oil-induced diarrhea and oxidative stress in rats. Methods The antidiarrheal activity was evaluated using castor oil-induced diarrhea method. In this respect, rats were divided into six groups: Control, Castor oil, Castor oil+Loperamide (LOP) and Castor oil+various doses of CDE. Animals were per orally (p.o.) pre-treated with CDE during 1 h and intoxicated for 2 or 4 h by acute oral administration of castor oil. Results Our results showed that CDE produced a significant dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal fluid accumulation. On the other hand, we showed that diarrhea was accompagned by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Castor oil also increased gastric and intestinal mucosa hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free iron levels. Importantly, we showed that chamomile pre-treatment abrogated all these biochemical alterations. Conclusion These findings suggested that chamomile extract had a potent antidiarrheal and antioxidant properties in rats confirming their use in traditional medicine. Copyright © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Sani M.,University of Monastir | Ghanem-Boughanmi N.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria | Aouani E.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with resveratrol (RVT) protects mice against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress and mortality as well as the mechanism involved in such protection. Mice were divided into three groups: control, LPS and LPS. +. RVT. Animals were pre-treated with RVT during 7. days. The survival rate was monitored over 48. h after LPS administration. Survival animals were sacrificed, their kidney, liver and brain homogenized for malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity, free iron and nitric oxide (NO) determination. Plasma was also processed for transaminases, creatinine, urea, NO and iron measurement. Pre-treatment with resveratrol greatly improved the survival rate of LPS-treated mice. Resveratrol counteracted LPS-induced tissue lipoperoxidation and catalase activity depletion. The polyphenol abrogated LPS-induced liver and kidney dysfunction as increased creatinine and urea as well as transaminases activities. In addition, pre-treatment with resveratrol abrogated LPS-induced tissues and plasma NO elevation and iron sequestration from plasma to tissue compartment. These data suggest that resveratrol prevents LPS-induced lethality and that its mode of action may involve differential iron deposition via iron shuttling proteins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Sani M.,University of Carthage | Yacoubi M.T.,University of Sousse | And 3 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2010

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a glycolipid component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria inducing deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. Endotoxemia-induced hepatotoxicity is characterized by disturbed intracellular redox balance, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation inducing DNA, proteins and membrane lipid damages. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4' trihydroxystilbene) is a phytoalexin polyphenol exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of subacute pre-treatment with this natural compound on LPS-induced hepatotoxicity in rat. Resveratrol counteracted LPS-induced lipoperoxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) but slightly glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The polyphenol also abrogated LPS-induced liver and plasma nitric oxide (NO) elevation and attenuated endotoxemia-induced hepatic tissue injury. Importantly resveratrol treatment abolished LPS-induced iron sequestration from plasma to liver compartment. Our data suggest that resveratrol is capable of alleviating LPS-induced hepatotoxicity and that its mode of action may involve differential iron compartmentalization via iron shuttling proteins. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Schaschl H.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Suchentrunk F.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | Morris D.L.,King's College London | Slimen H.B.,University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna | And 4 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2012

Background: In mammals, males typically have shorter lives than females. This difference is thought to be due to behavioural traits which enhance competitive abilities, and hence male reproductive success, but impair survival. Furthermore, in many species males usually show higher parasite burden than females. Consequently, the intensity of selection for genetic factors which reduce susceptibility to pathogens may differ between sexes. High variability at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is believed to be advantageous for detecting and combating the range of infectious agents present in the environment. Increased heterozygosity at these immune genes is expected to be important for individual longevity. However, whether males in natural populations benefit more from MHC heterozygosity than females has rarely been investigated. We investigated this question in a long-term study of free-living Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), a polygynous mountain ungulate. Results: Here we show that male chamois survive significantly (P = 0.022) longer if heterozygous at the MHC class II DRB locus, whereas females do not. Improved survival of males was not a result of heterozygote advantage per se, as background heterozygosity (estimated across twelve microsatellite loci) did not change significantly with age. Furthermore, reproductively active males depleted their body fat reserves earlier than females leading to significantly impaired survival rates in this sex (P < 0.008). This sex-difference was even more pronounced in areas affected by scabies, a severe parasitosis, as reproductively active males were less likely to survive than females. However, we did not find evidence for a survival advantage associated with specific MHC alleles in areas affected by scabies. Conclusions: Increased MHC class II DRB heterozygosity with age in males, suggests that MHC heterozygous males survive longer than homozygotes. Reproductively active males appear to be less likely to survive than females most likely because of the energetic challenge of the winter rut, accompanied by earlier depletion of their body fat stores, and a generally higher parasite burden. This scenario renders the MHC-mediated immune response more important for males than for females, which implies a relatively stronger selection pressure on MHC genes in males than in females. © 2012 Schaschl et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Laboratoires TransCell Laboratory, Laboratoire Of Neurophysiologie Fonctionnelle Et Pathologies and Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja
Type: | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

This study was designed to investigate the effects of immature carob pod aqueous extract (ICPAE) on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as well as the potential antidiabetic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. OGTT was carried by administration of glucose (2 g kgICPAE (50-2000 g mLOur findings confirm that the degree of maturity of carob characterized by a different phytochemical composition may be responsible for these actions. Therefore, these compounds may be used as a food supplement in hyperglycemia and diabetes treatments. 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

Abbassi F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Abbassi F.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Raja Z.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Oury B.,IRD Montpellier | And 8 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2013

Temporins are a family of short antimicrobial peptides (8-17 residues) that mostly show potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Herein, we demonstrate that temporin-SHd, a 17-residue peptide with a net charge of +2 (FLPAALAGIGGILGKLFamide), expressed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. This peptide displayed potent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, as well as antiparasitic activity against promastigote and the intracellular stage (amastigote) of Leishmania infantum, at concentration not toxic for the macrophages. Temporin-SHd that is structured in a non-amphipathic α-helix in anionic membrane-mimetic environments, strongly and selectively perturbs anionic bilayer membranes by interacting with the polar head groups and acyl region of the phospholipids, with formation of regions of two coexisting phases: one phase rich in peptide and the other lipid-rich. The disruption of lipid packing within the bilayer may lead to the formation of transient pores and membrane permeation/disruption once a threshold peptide accumulation is reached. To our knowledge, Temporin-SHd represents the first known 17-residue long temporin expressing such broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity including members of the trypanosomatidae family. Additionally, since only a few shorter members (13 residues) of the temporin family are known to display antileishmanial activity (temporins-TA, -TB and -SHa), SHd is an interesting tool to analyze the antiparasitic mechanism of action of temporins. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Akkari H.,Manouba University | Rtibi K.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | B'chir F.,Institute National Of Recherche Et Danalyses Physico Chimiques Pole Technologique Of Sidi Thabet | Rekik M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Research Communications | Year: 2014

Occurrence of anthelmintic resistant strains of helminths is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Artemisia campestris in comparison to albendazole against Haemonchus contortus of sheep. In this respect, in vitro anthelmintic activities of crude aqueous and crude ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of A. campestris were investigated on eggs and adults of Haemonchus contortus. Chemical analyses revealed that overall profile of both extracts samples were dominated by flavonoids among them quercetin and apigenin derivatives were the most abundant phenolics constituents. Both extract types completely inhibited egg hatching at a concentration close to 2 mg/ml. Lethal concentration 50% of A. campestris ethanolic and aqueous extracts were 0.83 and 1.00 mg/ml respectively (p<0.05). The ethanolic extract showed better in vitro activity against adult parasites than the aqueous extract in terms of the paralysis and/or death of the worms at different hours post-treatment. Dose dependent activity was also observed for both extract. After 8 and 24 h of exposure, the ethanolic extract induced 91.3 and 100% mortality at the highest tested concentration respectively, while the aqueous extract induced 3.22 and 70.96% at the same concentration respectively. To our knowledge, these results depict for the first time that A. campestris possesses in vitro anti-Haemonchus contortus properties. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Darmency H.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Menchari Y.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Menchari Y.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Le Corre V.,CNRS Agroecology Lab | Delye C.,CNRS Agroecology Lab
Evolution | Year: 2015

This article investigates the possible existence of mechanisms counterbalancing the negative pleiotropic effects on development and reproduction that are conferred by alleles responsible for herbicide resistance in the weed Alopecurus myosuroides. We considered three herbicide-resistant, mutant acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) alleles, Leu1781, Asn2041, and Gly2078, found in eight resistant populations. Of these, Gly2078 is the only allele with a known fitness cost. We compared plants homozygous for wild-type ACCase alleles that were siblings of plants carrying a given mutant resistant ACCase allele with plants from three populations where resistance did not evolve. In each of two series of experiments, we measured germination dynamics, seedling vigor, plant height, vegetative biomass, and seed production. The wild-type siblings of plants carrying Gly2078 performed better in the field, on average, than wild-type plants that were sibling of plants carrying other mutant ACCase alleles, and particularly those carrying Leu1781. We propose that rapid evolution of the genetic background of plants from the populations where the Gly2078 allele originally arose could partially counterbalance Gly2078 fitness cost, enhancing the spread of the resistant genotypes. © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

Sebai H.,University of Carthage | Sebai H.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | Selmi S.,Laboratore Of Physiologie Animale | Rtibi K.,Institute Superieur Of Biotechnologie Of Beja | And 3 more authors.
Lipids in Health and Disease | Year: 2013

Background: The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods. Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy + Essential Oils (H + EO) and Diabetic + Essential Oils (D + EO).Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results: The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), α-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions: These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. © 2013 Sebai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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