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Chatti K.,Tunis el Manar University | Baraket G.,Tunis el Manar University | Abdelkrim A.B.,Tunis el Manar University | Saddoud O.,Tunis el Manar University | And 3 more authors.
Biochemical Genetics | Year: 2010

Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gouta H.,Olive Tree Institute | Mars M.,Institute Superieur dAgronomie | Gouiaa M.,Institute Superieur dAgronomie | Ghrab M.,University of Sfax | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In Tunisia, the almond tree (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) dates back to ancient times and has been known since the Carthaginian era. About 90% of the almond production is in the semi-arid central and southern part of the country. In the north, Bizerte presents a very specific ecosystem, with cultivars practically resistant to strong wind and high humidity. Due to recent severe drought, more than three million trees were lost. This has resulted in a strong decline of the local almond gene pool and a real risk of loosing useful genetic resources for breeding programs and other uses. To safeguard the remaining almond germplasm, collecting of traditional almond cultivation areas has taken place in the past few years. More then 70 ecotypes have been identified and characterized. For this study, 50 almond cultivars and ecotypes were screened using 27 morphological and pomological traits. Principal Component Analysis shows that the first three principal components retained explain more then 41% of the total variance. The main fruit weight and size variables such as nut weight, nut length, nut thickness, nut size, kernel length, kernel weight, and kernel thickness were strongly associated with the first principal component. Percentages of double kernel and aborted kernel were positively associated with the second principal component. As the shelling percentage was negatively associated with the third principal component, this last was considered a component of commercial value. Cluster analysis classifies the studied almond cultivars into six groups.

Abou-Mansour E.,University of Fribourg | Debieux J.-L.,University of Fribourg | Ramirez-Suero M.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | Benard-Gellon M.,CNRS Vine Biotechnology and Environment Laboratory | And 11 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2015

Liquid chromatography-diode array screening of the organic extract of the cultures of 13 isolates of the fungus Neofusicoccum parvum, the main causal agent of botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine, showed similar metabolites. One strain was selected for further chemical studies and led to the isolation and characterisation of 13 metabolites. Structures were elucidated through spectroscopic analyses, including one- and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry, and through comparison to literature data. The isolated compounds belong to four different chemical families: five metabolites, namely, (-)-terremutin (1), (+)-terremutin hydrate (2), (+)-. epi-sphaeropsidone (3) (-)-4-chloro-terremutin hydrate (4) and(+)-4-hydroxysuccinate-terremutin hydrate (5), belong to the family of dihydrotoluquinones; two metabolites, namely, (6S,. 7R) asperlin (6) and (6R,. 7S)-. dia-asperlin (7), belong to the family of epoxylactones; four metabolites, namely, (R)-(-)-mellein (8), (3R,. 4R)-4-hydroxymellein (9), (3R,. 4S)-4-hydroxymellein (10) (R)(-)-3-hydroxymellein (11), belong to the family of dihydroisocoumarins; and two of the metabolites, namely, 6-methyl-salicylic acid (12) and 2-hydroxypropyl salicylic acid (13), belong to the family of hydroxybenzoic acids. We determined the phytotoxic activity of the isolated metabolites through a leaf disc assay and the expression of defence-related genes in Vitis vinifera cells cv. Chardonnay cultured with (-)-terremutin (1), the most abundant metabolite. Finally, analysis of the brown stripes of grapevine wood from plants showing botryosphaeria dieback symptoms revealed the presence of two of the isolated phytotoxins. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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