Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem

Ariana, Tunisia

Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem

Ariana, Tunisia
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Sakly C.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Ben Salem I.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Lassoued N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Ben Salem H.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2014

Reproductive outputs in fat-tailed Barbarine sheep in central Tunisia are often low because of feed shortage and the low nutritive value of diets. Supplementation with conventional concentrates is economically unsuitable in central Tunisia, so more cost-effective and sustainable alternative feeding strategies need to be developed. We tested effects of short-term nutritional treatments including cactus cladodes during the induction of 'male effect' on fertility and prolificacy parameters (follicular growth, ovulatory response and early embryo losses). One hundred and twenty ewes were distributed in 4 equal groups balanced for live weight grazed natural pastures and were supplemented for 21 days, starting day 10 after introduction of rams, with cactus cladodes (CA), cactus cladodes and soybean meal (CAS), concentrate (CC) or only soybean meal (S). Nutritional treatment did not affect live weight in this experiment. Ewes receiving cactus had higher number of large pre-ovulatory follicles (≥6 mm; 1.08 ± 0.05), between days 14 and 19 after introduction of rams, than females in the CC and S ewes (0.64 ± 0.06; p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in the onset of oestrous behaviour in response to 'male effect' or in the number of corpora lutea. Average ovulation rates were 1.42 ± 0.16 for CC, 1.47 ± 0.13 for CAS, 1.31 ± 0.15 for CA and 1.31 ± 0.13 for S groups respectively. Finally, reproductive wastages at day 35 after mating were not different between groups being 0.33 ± 0.19 for CC, 0.60 ± 0.17 for CAS, 0.43 ± 0.16 for CA and 0.31 ± 0.15 for S groups respectively. It is concluded that Barbarine ewes fed nutritional treatments including cactus performed similarly to those receiving diets including conventional concentrate feeds. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Maamouri O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Atti N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Kef | Kraeim K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
EAAP Scientific Series | Year: 2011

Tunisian dairy sheep is localized in sub humid area characterized by a high forage production and prairie growing. Nevertheless, young grass is characterized by a high level of soluble nitrogen which generates an important loss of urinary nitrogen leading to environment pollution. The objective of this work is to study the natural protection of protein by acacia tannins and its effect on urinary losses and milk production. An experimental sheep flock conducted on ray-grass grazing was divided into three homogeneous groups according to lactation rank. The first group (Control, C) received 300 g of concentrate, the second group (C-A) 300 g of concentrate and 100 g acacia, the last group only 100 g acacia (A). The nitrogen balance was realized on individual boxes with a daily cut herb. The dairy control was twice a month. Total milk production was higher for C-A group than for other groups, 48, 45 and 42 l for C-A, C and A respectively. Nitrogen intake varied significantly according to the concentrate and/or acacia supply. The average values were 22, 20 and 15 g/day for C-A, C and A group respectively. Urinary nitrogen excretion decreased from 6.5 g/d for C group to 4.5 g/d for C-A one, consequently to acacia intake. Conversely, the nitrogen retention significantly increased with acacia intake from 6 for C group to 10 g/d for C-A one. In conclusion, the acacia supply is a valid way to increase nitrogen retention and to manage the loss of nitrogen and environment.

Bancal M.-O.,Agro ParisTech | Ben Slimane R.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Bancal P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

Zymoseptoria tritici causes large losses in wheat yield usually related to the losses of green area. However, the issue of whether green area losses result from the local necrosis or from acceleration in the monocarpic apical senescence remains open. The present study examined whether leaf inoculation with Zymoseptoria tritici modifies apical senescence of flag leaf in wheat cultivar Soissons grown under two contrasted nitrogen nutritions. The dynamics of local and apical senescences and the pycnidia number were measured repeatedly throughout the grain filling. Local and apical senescence were adjusted to functions, the parameters of which were analyzed according to nitrogen and inoculation treatments. The intra-leaf gradient of residual nitrogen concentration was measured at plant maturity. The relative rate of apical senescence increased twofold when fertilization was withheld. Both treatments, inoculation and nitrogen, generated a large range of disease that developed to different extents, resulting from different rates and timing. Local necrosis and pycnidia number strongly varied with nitrogen nutrition but necrosis varied in the same extent as apical senescence, thus green area relative loss was unaffected by nitrogen nutrition. By opposition, apical senescence was never affected at any time by the inoculation. Residual nitrogen increased in the inoculated portions of the infected leaves, in correlation with local necrosis, whereas the residual nitrogen in the non-inoculated part of infected leaves stayed at the level of control leaves. Apical senescence was managed at the leaf tissue level, according to nitrogen availability but regardless of disease, a useful output for modelling. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Maamouri O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Maamouri O.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Atti N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kraiem K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Mahouachi M.,Ecole Superieure dAgriculture de Kef
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural protection of protein from microbial degradation in the rumen by acacia tannins on digestibility, nitrogen (N) retention and milk production in dairy ewes. An experimental sheep flock grazing rye grass pasture was divided into four groups. Indoor, animals were supplemented with 300. g of concentrate, 300. g of concentrate. +. 100. g Acacia cyanophylla foliage (acacia), 300. g of concentrate. +. 200. g acacia for C, C1A, C2A groups, respectively, and only 100. g of acacia for group A. Digestibility and N balance were measured for animals in metabolic cages fed with cut fresh grass.Acacia tannins interact with concentrate supply and significantly affected digestibility. Higher OM and CP digestibility was observed for C1A and C2A groups in comparison with the A group. Digestibility of OM, NDF and CP was higher for animals supplemented with concentrate than for those not supplemented. N retention increased with ration CP content. Acacia tannins led to a high increase of N retention for C1A and C2A groups compared to C group (10.3 vs. 5.8. g/day for animals fed acacia and those not fed acacia, respectively). So, urinary nitrogen excretion decreased from 6.5. g/day for C group to 4.5. g/day for C1A. Milk yield was the highest for C1A group (555. ml/day) and the lowest for A group (500. ml/day) whereas it was intermediate for other groups. Milk fat content decreased with groups fed acacia in comparison to groups not fed acacia (7.3 vs. 7.6%). Milk protein content decreased when ewes received acacia and concentrate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

PubMed | International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire, Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and CEVA Sante Animale
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2015

This study tested the effect of melatonin treatment, initiated in late February on reproductive traits of young rams. A total of 14 young Barbarine rams were used. Seven animals were treated with three melatonin subcutaneous implants (Melatonin) on 28 February while the remaining rams remained untreated (Control). After 60 days of melatonin administration, scrotal circumference reached average values of 32.11.54 and 29.51.0cm for Melatonin and Control animals, respectively (P<0.05). Semen characteristics did not differ between groups; melatonin treatment tended (P=0.091) to increase sperm concentration 60 days after implantation when means reached 5.870.703 and 4.610.65410(9) spermatozoa/mL for Melatonin and Control rams, respectively. Melatonin treatment significantly affected total activity time, number of lateral approaches and mount attempts in comparison to controls. During a 6-h sampling period, mean plasma testosterone concentrations increased as a result of melatonin treatment (P<0.001) and testosterone pulse frequency averaged 3.452.24 and 1.251.0 (P=0.086) for Melatonin and Control rams. Data clearly suggest that abrupt treatment of young rams with melatonin implants in winter is sufficient to improve reproductive traits.

Cossani C.M.,University of Lleida | Thabet C.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Mellouli H.J.,INRAT National Agricultural Research Institute of Tunisia | Slafer G.A.,University of Lleida | Slafer G.A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2011

Rainfed wheat is frequently exposed to periods of water stress that generate low and variable grain yields. Field experiments (with studies in Tunisia and Morocco) carried out in the context of a European research project of co-operation with Mediterranean partner countries (WatNitMED) showed that nitrogen (N) fertilization may be a tool to increase productivity of rainfed wheat in Mediterranean environments. However, most farmers in Northern Africa do not fertilize their rainfed cereals. In the present study, we aimed to analyse whether the generally accepted positive yield response to N fertilization in rainfed Mediterranean conditions corresponds to actual advantages achieved in the fields of working farmers, attempting a further up-scaling of knowledge from field experiments to real fields. We attempted to apply research results to Tunisian working farmers' fields by conducting a farm pilot experiment. The pilot experiment was conducted in two different regions (a low-yielding region and a relatively high-yielding region) of cereal production in Tunisia, where wheat production represents typical rainfed Mediterranean agro-ecosystems in North Africa. First, we compared the yield response to N fertilization against unfertilized conditions (a common situation for many of the farmers in North Africa), and secondly we compared what the farmers suggested as an optimal N fertilization practice in their fields against the WatNitMED's recommendation which was based on an N-fertilization scheme derived from field experiments from the European research project in Mediterranean conditions. The WatNitMED fertilization scheme suggested higher rates of fertilization than those considered optimal by farmers (on average 40 kg N ha?1 higher). Unfertilized grain yield across both locations ranged from about 1 to 3.5 Mg ha?1 (typical of farmers' yields in the region), and fertilizing increased grain yields in most situations. Within the two alternative fertilization treatments, WatNitMED fertilization produced higher yields than the fertilization rate considered optimal by farmers. This trend was observed at the low-yielding location as well as at the high-yielding location. These responses demonstrated that fertilization in working farmers' field conditions may be a reliable means of improving dryland wheat grain and straw yields. They also showed that rates of fertilization regarded as optimal by real farmers were below the optimum for these regions. © Cambridge University Press 2011.

Ghazouani H.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Ghazouani H.,University of Palermo | Autovino D.,University of Palermo | Rallo G.,University of Pisa | And 2 more authors.
Italian Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2016

The main objective of the work is to assess the optimal drip lateral depth for Eggplant crop (Solanum melongena L.) irrigated with a drip system in a sandy loam soil by means of field measurements and simulation models. Initially, the performance of Hydrus-2D was assessed based on the comparison between simulated soil water contents (SWC) and the corresponding measured in two plots, in which laterals with co-extruded emitters were laid on the soil surface (drip irrigation, DI-0) and at 20 cm depth (subsurface drip irrigation, SDI-20), respectively. In order to identify the optimal position of the lateral, the results of different scenarios, obtained by changing the installation depth of the lateral (5 cm, 15 cm and 45 cm) were compared in terms of water use efficiency (WUE), expresses as the ratio between actual transpiration and the total amount of water supplied during the entire growth season. Simulated SWCs resulted fairly close to the corresponding measured at different distances from the lateral and therefore the model was able to predict SWCs in the root zone with values of the Root Mean Square Error generally lower than 4%. According to the examined scenarios, soil evaporation decreases at increasing drip lateral depth, while the associated WUE tends to increase when the depth of the lateral rises from 0 to 20 cm. Depth installation greater than 20 cm involve a higher loss of water to deep percolation with consequent decrease of WUE. © 2016, Patron Editore S.r.l. All right reserved.

Rekik M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas | Ben Othmane H.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Lassoued N.,Institute National Of Recherche Agronomique Of Tunisie | Sakly C.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: This study aims to develop at different seasons, for local North African Maure goats, synchronizing protocols simultaneously to the standard 'S' protocol using progestagens in association with prostaglandins and gonadotropin. In late May, 40 goats were assigned to either the 'S' protocol or to a protocol where oestrus and ovulation were induced by the buck effect in single-injection progesterone-treated goats and provoking early luteolysis using prostaglandin 9 days after exposure to bucks 'B'. During the 72 h after the treatments ended, 15 and 5 goats expressed oestrus in the 'S' and 'B' protocols (p < 0.01). Mean time to oestrus was shorter for 'S' than for 'B' goats. Ovulation rate averaged 2.1 ± 0.22 and 1.60 ± 0.35 for, respectively, 'S' and 'B' goats (p > 0.05). During mid-September, 60 goats were assigned to either 'S' treatment, 'PGF' treatment where oestrus and ovulation were synchronized using two injections of prostaglandin 11 days apart or to 'GnRH' treatment where the goats had their oestrus and ovulation synchronized with a GnRH (day 0)-prostaglandin (day 6)-GnRH (day 9) sequence. More 'S' goats were detected in oestrus over the 96-h period after the end of the treatments (88.8, 73.7 and 55% in 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' treatments, respectively; p < 0.05). Mean ovulation rates were 2.3 ± 0.27, 1.33 ± 0.27 and 1.33 ± 0.27 for, respectively, 'S', 'PGF' and 'GnRH' goats (p < 0.001). Despite a similar ovulatory response to 'S' protocol, efficiency of prostaglandin and GnRH-based treatments should be tested in mid-breeding season. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Majdoub R.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Hachicha M.,Institute National Of Recherches En Genie Rural | Amri A.E.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem | Melki E.M.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
European Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2012

One of major constraints to development of irrigated agriculture, is the challenge of meeting an extended population food needs with increasingly poor water quality. Moreover, the threat of soil and groundwater salinization caused by irrigation has become a major issue. Particularly, in semi-arid and arid regions, the scarcity of freshwater resources, during summer often leads to overexploitation of groundwater resources. It follows therefore a serious and severe problem mainly in coastal regions, because groundwater resources will be affected by seawater intrusion. The present work aims to study water dynamics and salts transfer in order to predict the evolution of soil salinity and the associated risks in long-term. This study was conducted on a sandy loam soil irrigated with salt water representative of region of Mahdia in Tunisian Sahel. It focused especially on the monitoring of hydric and tensiometric soil profiles (volumetric water content and water suction head) and saline profile (electrical conductivity of aqueous extract). The results have shown the presence of phases of saturation and desaturation of the topsoil and showed cycles of salinization and desalinization of the soil resulting in a deep penetration of salts. The study of water and salts dynamics in deep layer showed the transfer of salts and their penetration exceed 4 m. The saline profiles are falling down with peaks, reflecting so the salts transfer. The presence of these peaks confirms a deep transfer that may cause salinization of the aquifer in long term and the increase in its current salinity. © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012.

Salem I.B.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Rekik M.,Ecole Nationale de Medecine Veterinaire | Gonzalez-Bulnes A.,INIA | Lassoued N.,Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres | Kraiem K.,Institute Superieur Agronomique Of Chott Meriem
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In the current study follicular dynamics, pituitary function, ovulatory response and luteal activity of 30 maiden Barbarine sheep were analyzed according to oestrus occurrence and lambing outcome after oestrus synchronisation with cloprostenol. Animals were retrospectively classified in three groups named as O- (n = 7, ewes not displaying oestrus), O+L- (n = 7, ewes showing oestrus but failing to lamb) and O+L+ (n = 16; ewes showing oestrus and lambing thereafter). All the sheep ovulated and daily transrectal ultrasonographies revealed that preovulatory follicles were present at cloprostenol injection in all the animals. In sheep O+L+ and O+L-, 50% and 57% of the ovulatory follicles were the largest follicles at cloprostenol treatment (mean size of 4.1 ± 0.26 mm and 4.3 ± 0.74 mm, respectively). In O- ewes, the same percentage was higher (86%, P < 0.05 when compared to group O+L+; mean size of 4.0 ± 0.46 mm). The number of large follicles and the final diameter of the ovulatory follicles at oestrous tended thereafter to be higher in group O+L+ (1.4 ± 0.1 and 6.4 ± 0.2) than in groups O+L- (1 ± 0.2 and 5.7 ± 0.36) and O- (0.9 ± 0.2 and 5.9 ± 0.5, respectively). Conversely, the number of medium follicles at oestrus detection was higher in the group O+L- (2.1 ± 0.3, P < 0.05) than in the other two groups (1 ± 0.2 and 1 ± 0.3 for O+L+ and O- respectively). Timing of preovulatory LH surge was earlier for ewes O- (24.0 ± 4.75, P < 0.05) than for sheep O+L+ and O+L- (37.9 ± 2.45 h and 38.0 ± 4.75 h, respectively) and 94% of O+L+ ewes had a LH surge between 16 h and 64 h after cloprostenol injection compared to 57% in O+L- and O- groups (P < 0.05). Thus, maiden Barbarine sheep failing to display oestrus or conceive showed alterations in their follicular dynamics and, thereafter, pituitary function and ovulatory response. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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