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Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bouyer J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Kone N.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide | Bengaly Z.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Developpement Sur Lelevage En Zone Sub Humide
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2013

In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p < 0.001). For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximum daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p < 0.001). The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.© 2013 Bouyer, Koné and Bengaly.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2013

The project intends to address the risk of emerging viral vector borne diseases in two main categories of arthropods known to transmit important animal and zoonotic diseases: mosquitoes (Aedes and Culex), and Culicoides biting midges. A research proposal targeting potential emerging viral disease risks related to these vectors will be carried out through original and integrated multidisciplinary approaches including: - Study of virus and microbial communities by next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodsin vectors collected in targeted ecosystems, providing an unprecedented global understanding of the role of the microbial and environmental ecology in virus emergence and transmission. It will also permit the discovery of new potential pathogens and the development of innovative diagnostic methods for surveillance and new tools for intervention strategies; - Characterization of vector competence mechanisms in selected vector-virus couples, including mosquitoes / Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Culicoides / Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Orbiviruses; - Development of vector distribution and disease transmission models; - Development of better maps of high-risk areas for vector presence, as well as disease emergence and spread taking into account the impact of globalization, including climate changes and intensification of human and animal movements; - Design of new surveillance frameworks accounting for these new diagnostic methods, new knowledge and risk assessment analyses, for improved strategies of vectors, domestic and wild susceptible speciessurveillance by national and regional authorities; - Improvement of intervention strategies against vector borne diseases; Owing to this field of investigations, the project has a high potential for industrial and commercial outputs in Europethrough diagnostic kits, vaccines and computational software.

Sall A.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles
Social Indicators Research | Year: 2012

The marine fishery in Senegal, West Africa, is a major source of employment and food security. It currently faces the consequences of ecological degradation. This paper examines job satisfaction among small-scale purse seine fishers, who constitute one of the dominant fishing métiers in Senegal. The research sample consists of 80 purse seine fishers in three locations along the coast with varied degrees of urbanisation. The findings suggest that purse seine fishers are generally satisfied with the extent to which the fishery meets their Social Needs and Self-Actualisation. They are dissatisfied, however, with the degree to which Basic Needs are met, with the way in which Management is carried out, and-to a lesser extent-with the condition of the natural environment. However, the study shows significant differences between the more rural and urbanised settlements. These are most pronounced with regard to the willingness to change fishing type, move to another profession or advise a young person to enter fishing. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bouyer J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Lefrancois T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Lefrancois T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2014

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-4-08 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2008

International trade reflects complex dynamic processes driven by demographic, socio-economic, technological and political changes. Therefore, future evolution of world markets is highly uncertain. The project builds on past research but emphasizes issues usually overlooked by standard assessments of trade liberalization such as: the impact of demand from energy markets which could affect agriculture and reverse the decline of real farm product prices; the demographic changes, which in some developing and transition countries modify the demand for food, especially that for industrial food processing; the concentration of firms in many global markets, which could modify the expected size and distribution of gains from trade liberalization among stakeholders; the impact of trade liberalization on price volatility, which is a key concern but remains to be thoroughly evaluated; the growing importance of sanitary and technical measures and their potential impact on food security, health issues, and trade. AGFOODTRADE helps answer the following questions: what are major trends and driving forces affecting world trade? What is their impact and how should trade policies deal with these processes in the future? A set of scenarios will be: a) assessed by analysing trends of a selection of indicators; b) quantified by a large scale dynamic general equilibrium model, a spatial trade model and a model of the EU farm sector; and c) tested in five case study countries. The project will provide information, expertise, and operational instruments to policymakers involved in trade negotiations, and agricultural policy design. Project outcomes databases and trade methodologies will have a strong foundation in policy realities thanks to the involvement of stakeholders. The quantitative instruments will ensure a forward-looking assessment of future agreements, including their effects on EU27 trade and the CAP, and answer the Commissions need for quantitative simulations.

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