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Bouyer J.,Unite Mixte de Recherche Controle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et Emergentes | Bouyer J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Kone N.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Développement Sur L'elevage En Zone Sub Humide | Bengaly Z.,CIRDES Center International Of Recherche Développement Sur L'elevage En Zone Sub Humide
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2013

In Burkina Faso, the cyclical vectors of African animal trypanosomoses (AAT) are riverine tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank (G.p.g.) and Glossina tachinoides Westwood (G.t.) (Diptera: Glossinidae). Experimental work demonstrated that environmental stress can increase the sensitivity of tsetse to trypanosome infection. Seasonal variations of the tsetse infection rates were monitored monthly over 17 months (May 2006-September 2007) in two sites (Douroula and Kadomba). In total, 1423 flies were dissected and the infection of the proboscis, middle intestine and salivary glands was noted. All the positive organs were analyzed using monospecific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. To investigate the role of different environmental factors, fly infection rates were analyzed using generalized linear mixed binomial models using the species, sex, and monthly averages of the maximum, minimum and mean daily temperatures, rainfalls, Land Surface Temperature day (LSTd) and night (LSTn) as fixed effects and the trap position as a random effect. The overall infection rate was 10% from which the predominant species was T. congolense (7.6% of the flies), followed by T. vivax (2.2% of the flies). The best model (lowest AICc) for the global infection rates was the one with the maximum daily temperature only as fixed effect (p < 0.001). For T. congolense, the best model was the one with the tsetse species, sex, maximum daily temperature and rainfalls as fixed effect, where the maximum daily temperature was the main effect (p < 0.001). The number of T. vivax infections was too low to allow the models to converge. The maturation rate of T. congolense was very high (94%), and G. t. harbored a higher maturation rate (p = 0.03). The results are discussed in view of former laboratory studies showing that temperature stress can increase the susceptibility of tsetse to trypanosomes, as well as the possibility to improve AAT risk mapping using satellite images.© 2013 Bouyer, Koné and Bengaly.

Bouyer J.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Bouyer J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouyer J.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Lefrancois T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Lefrancois T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2014

Mosquitoes are vectors of major diseases. Auto-dissemination recently proved very efficient to control Aedes species, using adult females contaminated with dissemination stations of juvenile hormone to treat breeding habitats, but cannot be used at large scales. Here we propose to combine it to the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to create a new control concept, named 'boosted SIT' that might enable the area-wide eradication of mosquitoes and many other vectors and insect pests. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2013.1.3-01 | Award Amount: 3.92M | Year: 2013

The project intends to address the risk of emerging viral vector borne diseases in two main categories of arthropods known to transmit important animal and zoonotic diseases: mosquitoes (Aedes and Culex), and Culicoides biting midges. A research proposal targeting potential emerging viral disease risks related to these vectors will be carried out through original and integrated multidisciplinary approaches including: - Study of virus and microbial communities by next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodsin vectors collected in targeted ecosystems, providing an unprecedented global understanding of the role of the microbial and environmental ecology in virus emergence and transmission. It will also permit the discovery of new potential pathogens and the development of innovative diagnostic methods for surveillance and new tools for intervention strategies; - Characterization of vector competence mechanisms in selected vector-virus couples, including mosquitoes / Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Culicoides / Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and Orbiviruses; - Development of vector distribution and disease transmission models; - Development of better maps of high-risk areas for vector presence, as well as disease emergence and spread taking into account the impact of globalization, including climate changes and intensification of human and animal movements; - Design of new surveillance frameworks accounting for these new diagnostic methods, new knowledge and risk assessment analyses, for improved strategies of vectors, domestic and wild susceptible speciessurveillance by national and regional authorities; - Improvement of intervention strategies against vector borne diseases; Owing to this field of investigations, the project has a high potential for industrial and commercial outputs in Europethrough diagnostic kits, vaccines and computational software.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-1 | Award Amount: 12.17M | Year: 2013

Tropical Atlantic climate recently experienced pronounced shifts of great socio-economic importance. The oceanic changes were largest in the eastern boundary upwelling systems. African countries bordering the Atlantic strongly depend upon their ocean - societal development, fisheries, and tourism. They were strongly affected by these climatic changes and will face important adaptation challenges associated with global warming. Furthermore, these upwelling regions are also of great climatic importance, playing a key role in regulating global climate. Paradoxically, the Tropical Atlantic is a region of key uncertainty in earth-climate system: state-of-the-art climate models exhibit large systematic error, climate change projections are highly uncertain, and it is largely unknown how climate change will impact marine ecosystems. PREFACE aims to address these interconnected issues, and has the following goals: To reduce uncertainties in our knowledge of the functioning of Tropical Atlantic climate. To improve climate prediction and the quantification of climate change impacts in the region. To improve understanding of the cumulative effects of the multiple stressors of climate variability, greenhouse induced climate change, and fisheries on marine ecosystems, and ecosystem services (e.g., fisheries, coastal vulnerability). To assess the socio-economic vulnerabilities and evaluate the resilience of Atlantic African fishing communities to climate-driven ecosystem shifts and global markets. To meet these goals we bring together European and African expertise to combine regional and global scale modelling capabilities, field experiments and observation systems. Our target region includes areas more affected by climate change and by its consequences, European outermost regions, and African countries bordering the Atlantic.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP-SICA | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.2-01 | Award Amount: 12.67M | Year: 2011

ANIMALCHANGE will provide scientific guidance on the integration of adaptation and mitigation objectives and design sustainable development pathways for livestock production in Europe, in Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. ANIMALCHANGE will inform public policy development in EU27 and propose cooperation programs addressing smallholder livestock farming in selected developing countries. The core analytical spine of the project is a series of coupled biophysical and socio-economic models combined with experimentation. This allows exploring future scenarios for the livestock sector under baseline and atmospheric CO2 stabilization scenarios. These scenarios are first constructed in Component (CP) 1. They are elaborated and enriched by breakthrough mitigation and adaptation options from CP 2 at field and animal scales, integrated and evaluated at farm scale in CP 3 and used to assess policy options and their socio-economic consequences in CP 4. ANIMALCHANGE will: - Quantify and reduce uncertainties in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and assess climate change impacts on livestock systems (including grasslands) - Revise estimates of the GHG balance of livestock systems and integrate soil carbon sequestration - Integrate climate variability and extremes into the assessment of impacts, adaptation and vulnerability of livestock systems to climate change - Develop breakthrough technologies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change for both ruminants and monogastrics - Study and quantify trade-offs and synergies between adaptation and mitigation options - Assess the potential societal and sectoral costs and benefits of these options for the livestock sector in Europe and in study regions of Africa and Latin America - Assess climate change vulnerability of animal production and of associated GHG emissions - Provide direct support through the design of an integrated and consistent mitigation and adaptation policy framework for the livestock sector

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-4-08 | Award Amount: 3.74M | Year: 2008

International trade reflects complex dynamic processes driven by demographic, socio-economic, technological and political changes. Therefore, future evolution of world markets is highly uncertain. The project builds on past research but emphasizes issues usually overlooked by standard assessments of trade liberalization such as: the impact of demand from energy markets which could affect agriculture and reverse the decline of real farm product prices; the demographic changes, which in some developing and transition countries modify the demand for food, especially that for industrial food processing; the concentration of firms in many global markets, which could modify the expected size and distribution of gains from trade liberalization among stakeholders; the impact of trade liberalization on price volatility, which is a key concern but remains to be thoroughly evaluated; the growing importance of sanitary and technical measures and their potential impact on food security, health issues, and trade. AGFOODTRADE helps answer the following questions: what are major trends and driving forces affecting world trade? What is their impact and how should trade policies deal with these processes in the future? A set of scenarios will be: a) assessed by analysing trends of a selection of indicators; b) quantified by a large scale dynamic general equilibrium model, a spatial trade model and a model of the EU farm sector; and c) tested in five case study countries. The project will provide information, expertise, and operational instruments to policymakers involved in trade negotiations, and agricultural policy design. Project outcomes databases and trade methodologies will have a strong foundation in policy realities thanks to the involvement of stakeholders. The quantitative instruments will ensure a forward-looking assessment of future agreements, including their effects on EU27 trade and the CAP, and answer the Commissions need for quantitative simulations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.3-1 | Award Amount: 16.37M | Year: 2011

To address the call for proposals Biology and control of vector-borne infections in Europe launched by the European Commission, we want to investigate the biological, ecological and epidemiological components of vector-borne diseases (VBD) introduction, emergence and spread, and to propose innovative tools for controlling them, building on the basis of acquired knowledge. We have selected the main groups of arthropod vectors involved in the transmission of vector-borne diseases in Europe: ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies, and biting midges (Culicoides). We have also selected the main diseases of actual or possible importance in human and veterinary public health. Rodents, insectivores and rodent-borne diseases have also been considered, both for their direct importance in public health, and for the major role of rodents and insectivores as reservoir hosts of many pathogens. We have put a strong focus on vector- and disease-quantitative modelling. The resulting predictive models will be used to assess climate or environmental change scenarios, as well as vector or disease control strategies. Human behaviour and risk perception are an important component of VBD introduction, emergence and spread. The consequences triggered by VBD for human and veterinary public health in Europe are just starting to emerge in public awareness. We will also account for this aspect of human and veterinary public health in our proposal. Finally, the set of innovative research methods, tools and results obtained during the project will be a step forward a generic approach of VBD in terms of disease monitoring and early warning systems, and will reinforce the general framework for an integrated pest and disease management system. For all these aspects, we will benefit from, and amplify the strong scientific results, capacity building, and research networks established by EDEN project on emerging, vector-borne diseases in a changing European environment.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2008-1-2-05 | Award Amount: 3.81M | Year: 2009

The increasing demand of livestock products, larger climate uncertainty and resource degradation, and the rampant poverty of farmers in the semi-arid tropics calls for modernized agroforestry systems (AFS) capable of providing multiple functions. The project will develop regionally specific, trait-based and field tested AFS capable of providing critical agro-ecosystem functions in semi-arid Africa and Central America. The primary objective is to provide farmers with a portfolio of regionally suitable tree and shrub species organized by their traits or attributes, in relation to the provisioning of multiple services, as perceived by the farmers and in terms of fundamental ecological functions. The project will make substantial contributions to AF and ecological science through its integration of theories and concepts from both fields, and will thereby provide a scientifically based model for the design of modernized AFS. The project will identify, and characterize the main factors influencing the adoption/non adoption of AF in selected target areas. It will improve the performance of AFS in dry and marginal areas with particular focus on how species can be assembled according to their traits to improve the multi-functionality of AFS and will identify the potential of new multipurpose tree species suitable for AF in dry and marginal areas by grouping these species according to their functional traits and their capacity to provide critical AFS services. The project will specifically enhance the synergies between the species traits and model how trait combinations contribute to the multi-functionality of AFS including soil, trees, crop/pasture and livestock. We will evaluate the short and medium environmental impacts of AF and its socio-economic implications through sophisticated interdisciplinary models and will produce policy recommendations aimed at promoting AFS and related husbandry practices best adapted to specific local needs, yet universal in scope.

Webster B.L.,Natural History Museum in London | Webster B.L.,Imperial College London | Diaw O.T.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | Seye M.M.,Institute Senegalais Of Recherches Agricoles | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Schistosomes are dioecious parasitic flatworms, which live in the vasculature of their mammalian definitive hosts. They are the causative agent of schistosomiasis, a disease of considerable medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions. Schistosomes undergo a sexual reproductive stage within their mammalian host enabling interactions between different species, which may result in hybridization if the species involved are phylogenetically close. In Senegal, three closely related species in the Schistosoma haematobium group are endemic: S. haematobium, which causes urogenital schistosomiasis in humans, and S. bovis and S. curassoni, which cause intestinal schistosomiasis in cows, sheep and goats. Methodology/Principal Findings: Large-scale multi-loci molecular analysis of parasite samples collected from children and domestic livestock across Senegal revealed that interactions and hybridization were taking place between all three species. Evidence of hybridization between S. haematobium/S. curassoni and S. haematobium/S. bovis was commonly found in children from across Senegal, with 88% of the children surveyed in areas of suspected species overlap excreting hybrid miracidia. No S. haematobium worms or hybrids thereof were found in ruminants, although S. bovis and S. curassoni hybrid worms were found in cows. Complementary experimental mixed species infections in laboratory rodents confirmed that males and females of each species readily pair and produce viable hybrid offspring. Conclusions/Significance: These data provide indisputable evidence for: the high occurrence of bidirectional hybridization between these Schistosoma species; the first conclusive evidence for the natural hybridisation between S. haematobium and S. curassoni; and demonstrate that the transmission of the different species and their hybrids appears focal. Hybridization between schistosomes has been known to influence the disease epidemiology and enhance phenotypic characteristics affecting transmission, morbidity and drug sensitivity. Therefore, understanding and monitoring such inter-species interactions will be essential for optimizing and evaluating control strategies across such potential hybrid zones. © 2013 Webster et al.

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