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Ghalmi F.,Ecole Nationale Suprieure Vtrinaire dAlger | China B.,University of Liege | Kaidi R.,Institute Scientifique Of Sante Publique | Losson B.,Blida University
Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2011

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. However, little information is available for Algeria. Accordingly, 799 cattle from 87 farms in the north and northeast of Algeria were enrolled in a seroepidemiological survey. An indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) revealed a seroprevalence of 19.6%. The animals were divided into 3 groups according to their breed: imported European cattle, local breeds, and crossed animals (European × local). Seroprevalences were 16.0%, 34.3%, and 18.6% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A case control study was performed to investigate the link between global seropositivity to N. caninum and abortion risk in those cattle farms. There was a significant (P < 0.01) association between the seroprevalence against N. caninum and the occurrence of abortion in those farms (odds ratio [OR] ?=? 12.03). This was also observed at the individual level (OR ?=? 2.79). The analysis of results according to the breed revealed a significant association between seroprevalence and abortion in groups 1 and 3, but not for group 2, despite the fact that the highest seroprevalence was observed in group 2. Cerebral tissues from 5 aborted fetuses were available for histology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One sample was found positive both by histology and by PCR, 2 samples were positive by PCR only, and 2 samples were negative in both tests. © 2011 American Society of Parasitologists.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH-2009-4.2-3 | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2010

The goals of the PREHDICT study are to determine prerequisites and strategies for vaccination in European countries and to predict the impact of vaccination on screening programmes. To achieve these goals, a multiple HPV type transmission model will be built to describe the type-specific incidence and clearance of HPV infections. This model will be linked to an individual-based simulation model used for modelling the impact of screening. For HPV-related diseases other than cervical cancer and genital warts, Markov models will be developed after critical review of the role of HPV. In the PREHDICT study, country-specific cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed for the vaccination and include determination of the vaccination age, the number of doses, the vaccination population, and the optimal catch-up vaccination age. Furthermore, the impact of vaccination on screening programmes will be assessed. This involves determination of the screening technology, screening frequency, and follow-up management of test-positive women. Special attention will be given to screening attendance and its relation to vaccination attendance. To have models with strong empirical support, the PREHDICT team will collect the most updated data on HPV infection, HPV-related disease, life-style factors, and demographics. Furthermore, HPV-type specific analyses will be performed on the outcomes of a vaccination trial, 3 large screening trials, and one self-sampling trial for screening non-attenders. By meta-analytical techniques, results will be pooled. The costs involved in the calculations will include the costs of organizing, running, and monitoring a vaccination and/or screening programme. The results of the PREHDICT study will be published in international peer-reviewed journals, posted on the WHO HPV information centre website and will also be systematically disseminated to all major stakeholders, in particular to decision makers at European, national and sub-national levels.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SEC-2011.5.4-1 | Award Amount: 1.59M | Year: 2012

The features of biological toxins like ricin, botulinum toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxins and saxitoxin place them at the interface of classical biological and chemical agents. They could be used for terrorist attacks on the basis of their availability, ease of preparation, the high toxicity and/or the lack of medical countermeasures. Some of the toxins are considered among the most relevant agents in the field of bioterrorism, for which the current preparedness within European countries should be further improved to limit casualties in the case of an intentional release. While different technologies for toxin detection and analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed gold standards are available. Generally, proficiency tests and certified reference materials for the mentioned toxins are lacking. In this context, the recent results of the first international proficiency test on the detection of one of the toxins provided highly relevant insights and a basis for further development. EQuATox will address these issues by creating a network of expert laboratories among EU 27 and associated countries, focussing on the detection of biological toxins and integrating experts from the security, verification, health and food sector. Four large EU-wide proficiency tests on the mentioned toxins will be organised with 27 laboratories from 20 countries worldwide so far being interested in participating and joining the network. The task will include the generation and characterisation of toxin reference materials which in the future can be further developed into ISO-compliant certified reference materials. Based on the status quo of toxin detection described in EQuATox, good practices and critical gaps in detection technology will be identified as foundation to harmonise and standardise detection capabilities. Furthermore, recommendations will be given on how to close these gaps and to minimise potential health and security risks for European citizens.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-08-2014 | Award Amount: 24.67M | Year: 2015

The TBVAC2020 proposal builds on the highly successful and long-standing collaborations in subsequent EC-FP5-, FP6- and FP7-funded TB vaccine and biomarker projects, but also brings in a large number of new key partners from excellent laboratories from Europe, USA, Asia, Africa and Australia, many of which are global leaders in the TB field. This was initiated by launching an open call for Expressions of Interest (EoI) prior to this application and to which interested parties could respond. In total, 115 EoIs were received and ranked by the TBVI Steering Committee using proposed H2020 evaluation criteria. This led to the prioritisation of 52 R&D approaches included in this proposal. TBVAC2020 aims to innovate and diversify the current TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline while at the same time applying portfolio management using gating and priority setting criteria to select as early as possible the most promising TB vaccine candidates, and accelerate their development. TBVAC2020 proposes to achieve this by combining creative bottom-up approaches for vaccine discovery (WP1), new preclinical models addressing clinical challenges (WP2) and identification and characterisation of correlates of protection (WP5) with a directive top-down portfolio management approach aiming to select the most promising TB vaccine candidates by their comparative evaluation using objective gating and priority setting criteria (WP6) and by supporting direct, head-to head or comparative preclinical and early clinical evaluation (WP3, WP4). This approach will both innovate and diversify the existing TB vaccine and biomarker pipeline as well as accelerate development of most promising TB vaccine candidates through early development stages. The proposed approach and involvement of many internationally leading groups in the TB vaccine and biomarker area in TBVAC2020 fully aligns with the Global TB Vaccine Partnerships (GTBVP).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH-2007-2.3.2-10 | Award Amount: 14.12M | Year: 2009

This proposal will establish an integrated and synergistic network to address the challenge of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) facing the EU. The objective will be attained through the establishment of a European consortium of expert partners with extensive experience in the conduct of basic and clinical research relating to MDR-TB, TB control and epidemiology. This Consortium will achieve this by: Conducting an extensive and focused programme of basic/clinical research to improve the diagnosis and management of MDR-TB Develop a broad training curriculum leading to the creation of a new generation of scientists and clinicians expert in the management of drug resistant TB Create field sites across the EU with the capacity for evaluating new diagnostic systems and novel drug therapies on behalf of European industry and government Establish a unified and robust quality assurance mechanism for the accurate and rapid diagnosis of drug resistance and develop appropriate safety standard for European health care workers Improving our understanding of the transmission of MDR-TB at the molecular level and host-related risk factors for its development, The Consortium will disseminate its findings and analyses widely to the benefit of specialists, general health care staff, EU governments, NGOs and health policy makers. This will provide researchers and clinicians with appropriate knowledge and improved tools to fight MDR-TB, and assist European industry in the development of new diagnostics and treatments. Consortium outputs will assist governments in the development and implementation of appropriate health and social policies to limit and control the spread of MDR-TB within the member states of the EU. Internationally, these objectives will assist countries bordering the EU and international agencies such as the WHO and ECDC in reducing the impact of drug resistance.

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