Institute Scientifique Of Rabat
Institute Scientifique Of Rabat
El Harnafi M.,Institute Scientifique Of Rabat |
Ammar A.,Faculte des science UMV
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017
Soil salinity is widespread particularly in arid areas. Much work has been done to remedy this natural contamination and make them more favorable to receive experimental soil of vegetation adapted to grow in these contrasting environments of scarce water resources. Over the 80 years, Morocco has experienced excessive dryness whose effects have been severely felt in the region of Errachidia. The depletion of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer has required the exploitation of deep reservoirs. In order to optimize the use of salt water in arid, the Institute of Agricultural Research tested soil experimenting three plant species; the Triplex, Acacia and Cypress. This experiment was not only economic objectives; increasing agricultural yields and production, but also reduce the impact of desertification in this region. So these are environmental reasons which have led researchers to realize this experiment whose purpose is to examine the ability of these plants to grow and adapt to irrigation by saline water from the deep aquifer in place. The experimental site is located on the left bank of the national road to Erfoud (Errachidia). In its entirety, the redesigned covering about 10 hectares. The studies that have been conducted mainly concerned pedogenetic analyzes and observations the development height of the plantation tested, regardless of the experimental ground heterogeneity. This is why we undertook a geophysical survey which aims to provide information on the quality of the tested soils and accumulation of salinity at different depths of the experimental ground. To achieve our goal, we used the technique of electrical and electromagnetic investigation in order to identify the main lines of a possible spatial heterogeneity. Recall that the work of OKAY (2010) on an experiment coring by examining the evolution of the newly formed fracturing have proved that the result of resistivity measurement is correlated with that of the chargeability. The electrical resistivity is closely related to the concentration of mineral particles. Characterization studies at the La Ronde tailings mine (Agnico-Eagle Ltd, in Abitibi), showed quite encouraging results (Campos, 2004; Anterrieu, 2006). Since it is a salt-bearing areas (highly conductive) and given that the induced polarization is very sensitive to the ground conductivity; by measurement of residual potential, so we took measures chargeability tomography, the result is compared to the resistivity measured at different soils (control and irrigated), which will better clarify the impact of salinity on the quality of the disturbed soil. Indeed, the chargeability response it possible to characterize the different irrigated soils and its variation is attributed not only to the effect of saline irrigation but also the existence of an heterogeneity of the original ground. Prospecting in electrical tomography has displayed vertically and horizontally anomalies existing within the experimental site of the station of Ain Al Atti, it showed that: - accumulation of salinity becomes wider going from the control ground to that of Acacias. - surveyed the ground at least appear more homogeneous in surface, but their conductivity varies in depth. - salinity origin and the concretion formed on the surface greatly influenced chargeability and resistivity measured on the different experimental soils. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.
Nicolas V.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute |
Mataame A.,Institute Scientifique Of Rabat |
Crochet P.-A.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology |
Geniez P.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology |
Ohler A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2015
We studied the phylogeography of the Sahara frog in North Africa. We widely sampled frogs from Morocco to Tunisia (195 individuals) and sequenced two mitochondrial (16S and CO1) and one nuclear (Rag1) genes. Our results confirm that Moroccan populations of Pelophylax saharicus are genetically distinct from Algerian ones. Specimens from Alger and Djelfa (central Algeria) are genetically closer to Moroccan specimens than to east Algerian ones, and the split between these two lineages may have occurred approximately 2.6 Mya. A similar pattern of differentiation was observed in several other species and was hypothesized to be linked to the formation of the fossil island called the 'Edough Peninsula' in eastern Algeria around 4.2 Ma and then to have been reinforced by Pleistocene climatic changes. At the Moroccan scale, we found a low level of genetic diversity and no clear phylogeographic pattern within P. saharicus. However, our SAShA analyses revealed a mixture of random and underdistributed haplotypes, which may indicate a complex population genetic or biogeographic history. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hanane S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute |
Magri N.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute |
El Agbani M.-A.,Institute Scientifique Of Rabat |
Dakki M.,Institute Scientifique Of Rabat
Wetlands | Year: 2015
Since 2005, Morocco has designated 28 Important Bird Areas (IBA) and Ramsar wetlands for waterbirds, yet little is known about how waterbird communities are changing over time and space, within and between sites. We assessed the relationships between species numbers of overall breeding waterbirds, as well as those of Anatidae, Rallidae and Podicipedidae, and geographical, topographical and macrohabitat factors. Species richness of overall waterbirds and Anatidae were positively correlated with: (i) extent of emergent vegetation, (ii) number of plant species present, and (iii) altitude. Species richness of Rallidae was positively correlated with: (i) latitude, and (ii) different beds of emergent vegetation, while that of Podicipedidae was exclusively correlated with altitude. These results suggest that breeding waterfowl are significantly related to habitat characteristics, most importantly vegetation structure, and altitude. Our findings give support to the idea that large mountain wetlands protected areas provide valuable habitat to breeding waterbirds in this region, by providing larger buffer zones with fewer human activities, such as hunting, urbanization and tourism disturbance. This study provides a platform from which we can advance the scientific research on Moroccan IBA and Ramsar wetlands. © 2015, Society of Wetland Scientists.