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São Paulo, Brazil

Grangeiro A.,University of Sao Paulo | Escuder M.M.L.,Institute Saude | de Castilho E.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to identify different profiles in the AIDS epidemic in Brazil by relating them to the health sector's organization, situations involving increased risk of infection, and the degree of implementation of the response by health services. The Brazilian municipalities (counties) were grouped according to the magnitude of the epidemic and its trends from 2002 and 2006, and were then studied using indicators obtained from secondary databases. Municipalities with large epidemics (39%) displayed more situations associated with risk of infection, and those with an upward trend in incidence (11.5%) showed a lower degree of response. Cities with large epidemics but with downward or stable trends had 68.6% of all the anonymous testing centers and 75.8% of the outpatient clinics, and performed 81.4% of all the HIV antibody tests in the health system. Preventive measures in schools and primary health services showed low coverage rates. Differences were observed between geographic regions. Inequalities in the degree of implementation of the response to HIV may contribute to different profiles in the epidemic around the country. Source

Bersusa A.A.,Institute Saude
Revista brasileira de epidemiologia = Brazilian journal of epidemiology | Year: 2010

Arterial Hypertension (AH) and Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are considered a worldwide epidemics whose control poses a challenge to health care services. Within the National Health System, the Family Health Program currently has the dual role of being a system gateway and reference structure. Bearing in mind this scenario, this study assessed the access of AH and DM patients to health care and therapeutic drugs. A household survey was conducted in five municipalities with over 100,000 inhabitants in the Baixada Santista. A two-stage self-weighted probabilistic sample was used. Results estimated a prevalence of 26.3% for AH and of 8.8% for DM, AH being more prevalent among women. As to health care, 85.3% of the individuals with AH interviewed reported having had their arterial pressure checked, and 70.2% of those with DM reported having had their glucose blood serum level tested in the preceding six months. Drug treatment was prescribed to 99.4% of these patients, and 62.8% of AH patients purchased such drugs from private drugstores, and 57.9% of DM patients received drugs provided by health centers. Over 90% of the patients had no access to educational group activities, and 78% of AH and 92.5% of DM patients had no supervising home visits. These findings suggest the need for primary health care as the mainstay for the care provided to HA and DM. Source

This paper focuses both the risk and the occurrence of non-planned pregnancy, abortions, as well as the awareness about and the use of emergency contraception among HIV/aids-infected women. A quantitative observational approach was used after a domiciliary survey in Santo Andre, São Paulo State, Brazil, where it was found that, after receiving the information about the infection, 62.8% adopted the use of male condom, 77.2% using it exclusively, 13% associated with hormone injections, and 9.8% alternated with either interrupted intercourse, fertility schedule or vaginal shower. Mechanical flaws by the use of the preservative occurred to 38%. Added to flaws associated to the alternation with behavioral methods, they caused together 40% of non-planned pregnancy, which occurred to 24% of the interviewed women, 22% resulting in self-provoked abortions. Emergency contraception was known by 51.4%, although only 2.7% had used it. The conclusion is that mechanical or behavioral flaws related to the use of preservative by HIV/aids-infected women increased their exposure to non-planned gestations and abortions. It is needed to amplify both the options and the supply of contraceptive methods, including emergency contraception, with constant re-orientation on the use of preservative among this public. Source

Grangeiro A.,University of Sao Paulo | Escuder M.M.L.,Institute Saude | de Castilho E.A.,University of Sao Paulo
Cadernos de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate strategies by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to expand the municipal response to AIDS. Cities "included" and "not included" in Federal strategies for "municipalization" of the response were compared according to the response profile and trends in the epidemic. Multinomial logistic regression was used, among other statistical procedures. Municipalities included from 1994 to 1998 showed higher chances of providing HIV diagnostic testing [OR = 15.0; 95%CI: 5.6-40.1], of having AIDS services [OR = 18.4; 95%CI: 8.4-40.5], and reducing cases involving heterosexual [OR = 3.1; 95%CI: 1.4-7.3], homosexual/bisexual [OR = 3.0; 95%CI: 1.4-6.2], and IDU transmission [OR = 6.6; 95%CI: 2.9-14.9] as compared to those "included in 2003" and "not included". There were no associations between the included Municipalities, greater coverage in prevention, the reduction in cases due to vertical transmission or blood transfusion, or mortality rates. Municipalities with a more structured response were associated with better results. The findings suggest that the municipalization policy contributed to improvement in the local response to AIDS. Source

Francisco P.M.S.B.,University of Campinas | Barros M.B.A.,University of Campinas | Segri N.J.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | Alves M.C.G.P.,Institute Saude
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates obtained through household and telephone surveys for monitoring, intervention and development of health policies. METHODS: The study analyzed data from 2,526 and 1,900 individuals aged 18 and over, living in Campinas, SP, interviewed by the household survey (ISACamp) and by the telephone survey (Vigitel), respectively. Sex, age and schooling were used to characterize the studied population. Prevalence estimates and 95% confi dence intervals were utilized in the analysis. The estimates of the sociodemographic characteristics of the population were compared by t-test for two independent samples and the comparison of the other estimates, according to the type of survey, was performed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: No statistically signifi cant differences were found between the estimates obtained by the two surveys analyzed for overall prevalence of: overweight/obesity, smoking status, mammography in the prior year and Pap smear at least once in life. However, for the estimates of worse perceived health status, health plan affi liation, mammography at least once in life and Pap smear in the prior year, signifi cant differences were found, with a tendency to overestimate data from the telephone survey, except in the case of worse perceived health status. CONCLUSIONS: These fi ndings point to the need for further studies, which may contribute to a better understanding of the differences, given that telephone surveys can provide quick and essential information for monitoring modifi able risk factors for the assessment of interventions and to develop policies promoting health in Brazil. Source

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