Ensenada, Mexico
Ensenada, Mexico

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Caceres-Martinez J.,Research Center Cientifica y | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Padilla-Lardizabal G.,Comite Estatal de Sanidad Acuicola del Estado de Nayarit
Journal of Aquatic Animal Health | Year: 2010

The pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is collected and cultured in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and the improvement and promotion of its culture are seen as a possible source for the economic development of coastal populations. However, information about the parasite fauna of the pleasure oyster is almost completely lacking. A histopathological survey carried out in two estuaries, Boca del Camichín and Pozo Chino, revealed the presence of hypertrophied gametes, rickettsiales-like prokaryotes (RLPs), the protozoan Perkinsus marinus, a protozoan Nematopsis sp., Ancistrocoma-like ciliates (ALCs), Sphenophrya-like ciliates, a turbellarian Urastoma sp., and encysted crustaceans. In general, prevalence and intensity of parasites were similar in both localities except that ALCs and encysted crustaceans were more prevalent in Pozo Chino than in Boca del Camichín. Perkinsus marinus and RLPs seem to represent a more significant risk for the health of pleasure oysters than do the other parasites, and surveillance and control of these parasites are needed for the development of pleasure oyster culture. © Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2010.


Caceres-Martinez J.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Ortega M.G.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012

The mangrove oyster . Saccostrea palmula coexists with the pleasure oyster . Crassostrea corteziensis in coastal lagoons of northwest Mexico. Recent discovery of . Perkinsus marinus infecting the pleasure oyster in the region prompted evaluation of . S. palmula as an alternative . P. marinus host. An analysis to determine the possible presence of . P. marinus in natural and cultured populations of . S. palmula at four coastal lagoons in Sinaloa, Mexico was carried out during October-November 2010. Tissues from apparently healthy . S. palmula were evaluated using Ray's fluid thioglycollate method (RFTM), which revealed a . Perkinsus sp. to be present in all four locations at 6.7-20.0% prevalence. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasite forms consistent with moderate . P. marinus infection, which was confirmed by ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (NTS)-based PCR assays on DNA samples from oysters positive by RFTM and histology. DNA sequencing of amplified NTS fragments (307. bp) produced a sequence 98-100% similar to GenBank-deposited sequences of the NTS from . P. marinus. Fluorescent . in situ hybridization for . Perkinsus spp. and . P. marinus corroborated the PCR results, showing clear hybridization of . P. marinus in host tissues. This is the first record of . P. marinus infecting a species from genus . Saccostrea and the first record of the parasite from coastal lagoons in Sinaloa, Mexico. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..


Cruz-Flores R.,Research Center Cientifica ucacion Superior Of Ensenada | Caceres-Martinez J.,Research Center Cientifica ucacion Superior Of Ensenada | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2015

Filtrations were applied to separate vacuoles of Rickettsiales-like organism Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis. Vacuoles were visualized by staining with nucleic acid fluorochrome and their identity was confirmed by Laser Capture Microdissection and PCR. This methodology separates vacuoles and allows studies without the need of isolation in synthetic media or cell lines. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute Sanidad Acuicola and Research Center Cientifica ucacion Superior Of Ensenada
Type: | Journal: Journal of microbiological methods | Year: 2015

Filtrations were applied to separate vacuoles of Rickettsiales-like organism Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis. Vacuoles were visualized by staining with nucleic acid fluorochrome and their identity was confirmed by Laser Capture Microdissection and PCR. This methodology separates vacuoles and allows studies without the need of isolation in synthetic media or cell lines.


Caceres-Martinez J.,Research Center Cientifica Educacion Superior Of Ensenada | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Cruz-Flores R.,Research Center Cientifica Educacion Superior Of Ensenada
Journal of Shellfish Research | Year: 2015

The Pacific geoduck Panopea generosa is distributed along the Pacific coast of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Because of its high market value, this species has been under an intensive fishery pressure during the last few years, whereas its experimental aquaculture production is still developing. The fishery and culture practices point to the movement of clams as a risk factor for dispersion of symbionts, parasites, and diseases. Wild geoduck clams from fishery captures are sent to facilities that maintain clams alive, before marketing. Some of them show external abnormalities such as weakness and flaccidity, blisters, and darkening and thickening of the mantle surface and siphon. The objective of this study was to determinate if these abnormalities were related to parasites or diseases through conventional parasitological and histological analyses. The parasitological analysis showed two species of copepods, Pseudomyicola spinosus and a calanoid species in the mantle cavity and gills; additionally, a turbellarian species was also observed in the mantle cavity, none of these symbionts were related to tissue damage. The histological analysis showed that some weak-flaccid clams were in a postspawning condition. The dark and thick areas of the siphon and mantle suffered a dramatic transformation of the periostracum into a cavernous structure with numerous protozoans in different developmental stages. Fungi were occasionally observed in the external area of the periostracum. Unusual mortalities were reported by producers in clams with this abnormality. Rickettsia-like inclusions and trematodes were found in the digestive gland associated with limited damage to the host. The darkening and thickening of the siphon represent a major issue because of the negative appearance of the clams, which prevents its sale and is possibly related to the unusual mortality episodes. Detailed field and laboratory studies are needed to determine the origin of this pathology as well as its distribution and effect on the survival of the host. Moreover, field studies on the distribution, prevalence, and intensity of the other symbionts and parasites here detected are needed. These data constitute the first record for organisms associated with P. generosa in Mexico and a baseline for future studies.


Caceres-Martinez J.,Research Center Cientifica Educacion Superior Of Ensenada | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Cruz-Flores R.,Research Center Cientifica Educacion Superior Of Ensenada
Hidrobiologica | Year: 2015

A new severe pathological alteration in the gonadic tissue of red abalone was observed, which compromises reproduction of affected organisms. The alteration is related to the presence of numerous extracellular macro-crystal inclusions (Mci) reaching up to 300 μm in size. These Mci may be surrounded by hemocytes, cellular debris, and deposition of fibroblasts. Moreover, hypertrophy of the nuclei of cells in the top germinal epithelium and presence of brown cells in trabeculae were observed. The normal architecture of the tissue looks entirely altered and destroyed in some cases. No gonadal development was observed. The chemical nature of the Mci is unknown, but it is possibly related to inorganic toxic compounds. No previous records of similar alterations in abalone are known to exist. This record could help determine if this pathology has been observed in other abalone culture areas in the world, its possible origin, and if control is necessary.


Cruz-Flores R.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2016

Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) of the rickettsiales-like prokaryote, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc), pathogen of Haliotis spp. from the West Coast of North America, were found to be infected by a bacteriophage hyperparasite previously described in red abalone from California. The hyperparasite has an icosahedrical-like capsid with a narrow long flexible tail, this morphological characteristic tentatively place this virus in the Family Siphoviridae from the order Caudovirales. TEM images also showed the bacteriophage in different stages of assembly in the cytoplasm of CXc, demonstrating its lytic cycle. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Cruz-Flores R.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Munoz-Flores M.,CICESE | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2016

Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012–2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and its bacteriophage are widely distributed in the peninsula of Baja California and that they are well established in natural populations of blue abalone and yellow abalone. Additionally, this data constitutes the first record of a bacteriophage in blue abalone. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Vasquez-Yeomans R.,CICESE | Vasquez-Yeomans R.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Garcia-Ortega M.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola | Caceres-Martinez J.,CICESE | Caceres-Martinez J.,Institute Sanidad Acuicola
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2010

Recurrent episodes of mortality of Crassostrea gigas cultured in northwestern Mexico have been occurring since 1997. Previous studies on bacteria, protozoans, and metazoans as presumptive causal agents have been inconclusive. However, erosions in the marginal indentation of gills have been frequently observed in oysters from areas affected by mortality events, and in 2000 those lesions were associated with the detection of a herpes-like virus. The present study aimed to describe the histological alterations of eroded gills and to determine whether ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) or a related virus was associated with them using in situ hybridization (ISH). Histology showed that gill filaments were fused. In severe cases, deformation of the interlamellar junctions, swelling, and the loss of water channels was observed. ISH analysis revealed the presence of OsHV-1 DNA or a related virus in cells of the gills. Some labeled cells were large with dark granules inside their cytoplasm. These cells were surrounded by infiltrating hemocytes. Some cells interpreted as hemocytes were labeled and observed in eroded and non-eroded areas of the gill. Large cells detected by ISH were also observed by conventional histology with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Whether the virus produces the erosions in the gills, or the erosions in the gills are produced by an unknown condition and favor the presence of the virus, remains unresolved. It is also not clear whether the lesions contribute to mortality. © Inter-Research 2010.


Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc) is a Rickettsiales-like prokaryote that is considered the causal agent of Withering Syndrome (WS), a chronic disease of abalone, from the west coast of North America and it is listed by the International Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as a reportable agent due to its pathogenicity. This bacterium in red abalone Haliotis rufescens, black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, and yellow abalone Haliotis corrugata from California, US and Baja California, Mexico has been found to be infected by a bacteriophage. To date, there is no information on the epizootiology of CXc and its bacteriophage in natural populations of abalone; furthermore, it is unknown if the bacteriophage was also present in CXc infecting blue abalone Haliotis fulgens. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution, prevalence and intensity of CXc, as well as to determine the distribution and prevalence of the bacteriophage and to study interactions between host sex and hyperparasitism in blue abalone and yellow abalone. Tissue samples were obtained from seven localities where the commercial capture of wild abalone is carried out. Samplings were conducted throughout the 2012-2013 capture seasons and a total of 182 blue abalone and 170 yellow abalone were obtained. The prevalence and intensity of CXc and the prevalence of the bacteriophage were determined by histology. The identity of CXc was confirmed by PCR, product sequence analysis and in situ hybridization while the identity of the bacteriophage was corroborated by TEM. The prevalence of CXc infected and uninfected by the bacteriophage was 80% in blue abalone and 62% in yellow abalone. Low infection intensities were found in 86% of blue abalone and 82% of yellow abalone. Infection intensity was significantly higher in undifferentiated yellow abalone. The bacteriophage in CXc showed a prevalence of 22% and 31% in blue abalone and yellow abalone respectively. These results show that CXc and its bacteriophage are widely distributed in the peninsula of Baja California and that they are well established in natural populations of blue abalone and yellow abalone. Additionally, this data constitutes the first record of a bacteriophage in blue abalone.

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