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Martinez-Baz I.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Martinez-Baz I.,CIBER ISCIII | Aguilar I.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Moran J.,Direccion de Atencion Primaria | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Objective: We aimed to analyze the factors influencing continued adherence to influenza vaccination in elderly persons vaccinated in the preceding season. Methods: Using a population-based vaccination registry, we evaluated the proportion of persons vaccinated against influenza in Navarre, Spain, in the 2010-11 season among non-institutionalized persons aged 65. years or over who had been vaccinated in the 2009-10 season. Logistic regression was used to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and health care factors. Results: Of the 64,245 persons vaccinated against influenza in the 2009-10 season, 87% were vaccinated in the 2010-11 season. Continued adherence to vaccination increased with the number of physician visits per year. It was lower in women, in the 65-69 and ≥ 95 year age-groups, in those hospitalized or diagnosed with any major chronic condition in the previous year, and in persons with hematological cancer or dementia. Health districts and physicians with higher coverage in the previous season continued to have higher adherence in the following season. Conclusions: People vaccinated against influenza in one season tend to be vaccinated in the following one. Sociodemographic, clinical and health care factors have a moderate effect on the continuity of vaccination, with the most important factor being the treating physician. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Rondy M.,EpiConcept | Puig-Barbera J.,Centro Superior Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Csisp | Launay O.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Launay O.,University of Paris Descartes | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Influenza vaccination strategies aim at protecting high-risk population from severe outcomes. Estimating the effectiveness of seasonal vaccines against influenza related hospitalisation is important to guide these strategies. Large sample size is needed to have precise estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against severe outcomes. We assessed the feasibility of measuring seasonal IVE against hospitalisation with laboratory confirmed influenza through a network of 21 hospitals in the European Union. Methods: We conducted a multicentre study in France (seven hospitals), Italy (one hospital), and Navarra (four hospitals) and Valencia (nine hospitals) regions in Spain. All ≥18 years hospitalised patients presenting an influenza-like illness within seven days were swabbed. Cases were patients RT-PCR positive for influenza A (H3N2); controls were patients negative for any influenza virus. Using logistic regression with study site as a fixed effect we calculated IVE adjusted for potential confounders. We restricted the analyses to those swabbed within four days. Results: We included, 375 A(H3N2) cases and 770 controls. The overall adjusted IVE was 24.9% (95%CI-1.8;44.6). Among the target group for vaccination (N = 1058) the adjusted IVE was 28.8% (95%CI:2.8;47.9); it was respectively 36.8% (95%CI:-48.8; 73.1), 42.6% (95%CI:-16.5;71.7), 17.8%(95%CI:-40.8; 52.1) and 37.5% (95%CI:-22.8;68.2) in the age groups 18-64, 65-74, 75-84 and more than 84 years. Discussion: Estimation of IVE based on the pooling of data obtained through a European network of hospitals was feasible. Our results suggest a low IVE against hospitalised confirmed influenza in 2011-12. The low IVE may be explained by a poor immune response in the high-risk population, imperfect match between vaccine and circulating strain or waning immunity due to a late season. Increased sample size within this network would allow more precise estimates and stratification of the IVE by time since vaccination and vaccine types or brands. © 2013 Rondy et al.


De Angelis R.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Sant M.,Fondazione IRCSS Instituto Nazionale dei Tumori | Coleman M.P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Francisci S.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Cancer survival is a key measure of the effectiveness of health-care systems. EUROCARE-the largest cooperative study of population-based cancer survival in Europe-has shown persistent differences between countries for cancer survival, although in general, cancer survival is improving. Major changes in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation occurred in the early 2000s. EUROCARE-5 assesses their effect on cancer survival in 29 European countries. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, we analysed data from 107 cancer registries for more than 10 million patients with cancer diagnosed up to 2007 and followed up to 2008. Uniform quality control procedures were applied to all datasets. For patients diagnosed 2000-07, we calculated 5-year relative survival for 46 cancers weighted by age and country. We also calculated country-specific and age-specific survival for ten common cancers, together with survival differences between time periods (for 1999-2001, 2002-04, and 2005-07). Findings: 5-year relative survival generally increased steadily over time for all European regions. The largest increases from 1999-2001 to 2005-07 were for prostate cancer (73·4% [95% CI 72·9-73·9] vs 81·7% [81·3-82·1]), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (53·8% [53·3-54·4] vs 60·4% [60·0-60·9]), and rectal cancer (52·1% [51·6-52·6] vs 57·6% [57·1-58·1]). Survival in eastern Europe was generally low and below the European mean, particularly for cancers with good or intermediate prognosis. Survival was highest for northern, central, and southern Europe. Survival in the UK and Ireland was intermediate for rectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, skin melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but low for kidney, stomach, ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Survival for lung cancer in the UK and Ireland was much lower than for other regions for all periods, although results for lung cancer in some regions (central and eastern Europe) might be affected by overestimation. Survival usually decreased with age, although to different degrees depending on region and cancer type. Interpretation: The major advances in cancer management that occurred up to 2007 seem to have resulted in improved survival in Europe. Likely explanations of differences in survival between countries include: differences in stage at diagnosis and accessibility to good care, different diagnostic intensity and screening approaches, and differences in cancer biology. Variations in socioeconomic, lifestyle, and general health between populations might also have a role. Further studies are needed to fully interpret these findings and how to remedy disparities. Funding: Italian Ministry of Health, European Commission, Compagnia di San Paolo Foundation, Cariplo Foundation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Castilla J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Castilla J.,CIBER ISCIII | Cia F.,Red de Medicos Centinela de Gripe de Navarra | Zubicoa J.,Red de Medicos Centinela de Gripe de Navarra | And 3 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012

In the 2011/12 season, three influenza outbreaks were studied in nursing homes with high vaccination coverage in Navarre, Spain. Attack rates ranged from 2.9% to 67%. Influenza A/Stockholm/18/2011(H3N2) virus strain was isolated from the three outbreaks. Vaccination should be complemented with other hygiene measures in nursing homes. Early detection of influenza outbreaks in nursing homes can aid in their control. ©2007-2011. All rights reserved.


Castilla J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Castilla J.,CIBER ISCIII | Martinez-Baz I.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Martinez-Baz I.,CIBER ISCIII | And 10 more authors.
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

We estimate mid-2013/14 season vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the influenza trivalent vaccine in Navarre, Spain. Influenza-like illness cases attended in hospital (n=431) and primary healthcare (n=344) were included. The overall adjusted VE in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 24% (95% CI: -14 to 50). The VE was 40% (95% CI: -12 to 68) against influenza A(H1)pdm09 and 13% (95% CI: -36 to 45) against influenza A(H3). These results suggest a moderate preventive effect against influenza A(H1)pdm09 and low protection against influenza A(H3).


Castilla J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Castilla J.,CIBER ISCIII | Beristain X.,Complejo Hospitalario Of Navarra | Martinez-Artola V.,Complejo Hospitalario Of Navarra | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

Two rotavirus vaccines have been available since 2006. This study evaluates the effectiveness of these vaccines using a test-negative case-control design in Navarre, Spain. We included children 3-59 months of age who sought medical care for gastroenteritis and for whom stool samples were taken between January 2008 and June 2011. About 9% had received the pentavalent vaccine (RotaTeq) and another 8% received the monovalent vaccine (Rotarix). Cases were the 756 children with confirmed rotavirus and controls were the 6036 children who tested negative for rotavirus. Thirty-five percent of cases and 9% of controls had required hospitalization (p<0.0001). The adjusted effectiveness of complete vaccination was 78% (95% CI: 68-85%) in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and 83% (95% CI: 65-93%) in preventing hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis. No differences between the two vaccines were detected (p=0.4523). Both vaccines were highly effective in preventing cases and hospital admissions in children due to rotavirus gastroenteritis. © 2011.


Sanchez S.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Cenoz M.G.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Martin C.,Complejo Hospitalario Of Navarra | Beristain X.,Complejo Hospitalario Of Navarra | And 2 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2014

SUMMARY A Spanish household was identified through a Public Health follow up on a Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-positive 14-month-old girl reporting bloody diarrhoea, with the four household members experiencing either symptomatic or asymptomatic STEC and/or atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) shedding. In total, two different O76:H19 STEC strains and six aEPEC strains belonging to multiple serotypes were isolated and characterized in the household during a 5-month period. Prolonged asymptomatic shedding of O76:H19 STEC and O51:H49 aEPEC was detected in two family members. Although there was no conclusive evidence, consumption of vegetables fertilized with sheep manure was the suspected source of infection. This study highlights the risk of cross-infections posed by prolonged asymptomatic carriage and close household contact between family members, and illustrates the importance of molecular epidemiology in understanding disease clusters. © Cambridge University Press 2013.


Garcia Cenoz M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Castilla J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Irisarri F.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Arriazu M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra | Barricarte A.,Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra
Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra | Year: 2011

Background. In 2007 universal varicella vaccination was introduced in the childhood immunization schedule of of Navarre. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of this measure on the incidence of varicella in both vaccinated cohorts (direct effect) and in the unvaccinated (indirect effect). Material and methods. Varicella is a notifiable disease. We analyzed the annual incidence by age groups between 2006 and 2010. Hospital admissions with varicella or complicated varicella as the principal diagnosis were obtained from the minimum basic data set on hospital discharges for the years 2006 to 2009. Results. The incidence of varicella has decreased by 93.0%, from 8.04 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in 2006 to 0.56 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2010 (p<0,0001). In children from 1 to 6 years (vaccinated cohorts), the incidence of varicella has fallen by 96.3%. In the cohorts vaccinated at 10 and 14 years, a decrease of 93.6% can also be observed in children from 10 to 14 years, and of 85.0% in those of 15 to 19 years. In the unvaccinated age groups we can observe falls of 88.2% in children under one year, of 73.3% in those of 7 to 9 years, and of 84.6% in people over 20 years. In 2006 there were 25 hospital admissions due to varicella in Navarre and in 2009 this figure decreased to 7. The rate of admissions fell by 73%. Conclusion. The introduction of universal varicella vaccination in Navarre has resulted in a rapid and very steep reduction of the incidence of varicella in both vaccinated and unvaccinated people.


PubMed | Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2016

We estimated the direct, indirect and total effects of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. A population-based cohort study followed children aged between 2.5 and 59 months between 2001 and 2014 in Navarra, Spain. IPD incidence was compared by PCV status and period. All cases diagnosed from July 2010 to December 2014 and eight matched controls per case were analysed to estimate the adjusted direct effect of PCV13. A total of 120,980 children were followed and 206 IPD cases were detected. Compared with unvaccinated children in the baseline period (2001-2004), overall IPD incidence in 2011-2014 (76% average PCV coverage) declined equally in vaccinated (total effect: 76%; hazard ratio (HR): 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.40) and unvaccinated children (indirect effect: 78%; HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). IPD incidence from non-PCV13 serotypes increased among vaccinated children (HR: 2.84; 95% CI: 1.02-7.88). The direct effect of one or more doses of PCV13 against vaccine serotypes was 95% (odds ratio: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.55). PCV13 was highly effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD. The results suggest substantial and similar population-level vaccine benefits in vaccinated and unvaccinated children through strong total and indirect effects.


PubMed | Institute Salud Publica Of Navarra
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2016

We estimated whether previous episodes of influenza and trivalent influenza vaccination prevented laboratory-confirmed influenza in Navarre, Spain, in season 2013/14. Patients with medically-attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) in hospitals (n=645) and primary healthcare (n=525) were included. We compared 589 influenza cases and 581 negative controls. MA-ILI related to a specific virus subtype in the previous five seasons was defined as a laboratory-confirmed influenza infection with the same virus subtype or MA-ILI during weeks when more than 25% of swabs were positive for this subtype. Persons with previous MA-ILI had 30% (95% confidence interval (CI): -7 to 54) lower risk of MA-ILI, and those with previous MA-ILI related to A(H1N1)pdm09 or A(H3N2) virus, had a, respectively, 63% (95% CI: 16-84) and 65% (95% CI: 13-86) lower risk of new laboratory-confirmed influenza by the same subtype. Overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 31% (95% CI: 5-50): 45% (95% CI: 12-65) for A(H1N1)pdm09 and 20% (95% CI: -16 to 44) for A(H3N2). While a previous influenza episode induced high protection only against the same virus subtype, influenza vaccination provided low to moderate protection against all circulating subtypes. Influenza vaccine remains the main preventive option for high-risk populations.

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