Institute Salud Publica Of Chile

Santiago, Chile

Institute Salud Publica Of Chile

Santiago, Chile
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Montenegro-Nicolini M.,University of Chile | Montenegro-Nicolini M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Miranda V.,University of Chile | Morales J.O.,University of Chile | Morales J.O.,Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases iS
AAPS Journal | Year: 2017

Peptides and proteins represent a promissory group of molecules used by the pharmaceutical industry for drug therapy with great potential for development. However, the administration of these molecules presents a series of difficulties, making necessary the exploration of new alternatives like the buccal route of administration to improve drug therapy compliance. Although drop-on demand printers have been explored for small molecule drugs with promising results, the development of delivery systems for peptides and proteins through inkjet printing has seen little development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a thermal inkjet printing system for dispensing lysozyme and ribonuclease-A as model proteins. To address the absorption limitations of a potential buccal use, a permeation enhancer (sodium deoxycholate) was also studied in formulations. We found that a conventional printer successfully printed both proteins, exhibiting very high printing efficiency. Furthermore, the protein structure was not affected and minor effects were observed in the enzymatic activity after the printing process. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the usage of an inexpensive, easy to use, reliable, and reproducible thermal inkjet printing system to dispense proteins solutions for potential buccal application. Our research significantly contributes to present an alternative for manufacturing biologics delivery systems, with emphasis in buccal applications. Next steps of developments will be aimed at the use of new materials for printing, controlled release, and protection strategies for proteins and peptides. © 2016, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

Duffau B.E.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Rojas S.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Delgado L.A.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Jofre S.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacognosy Research | Year: 2015

Context: Consumption of synthetic drugs had increased in recent years, used as a recreational drug by young people who presume that consumption of this drug is harmless for health; however clinical studies have shown that this stimulant and its metabolites are toxic. Due to these reasons, chemical analysis of this illicit drug is crucial from the points of view of occupational medicine, toxicology, and law enforcement with the aim of pursuit the traffic of illegal drug. Aims: Implement and fully validate a rapid and simple method for detection and quantitation of MDMA by High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography in seized samples. Methods: With the implemented method was analyzed 12 positive samples seized by Chilean police, to found the concentration of MDMA in ecstasy tablets. Results: The method was fully validated, the linearity of the method was evaluated by the calibration curve between 51.0-510.0 μg/band (R2 0.9977); limit of detection was 12.1 μg per band, and limit of quantitation was 36.8 μg per band. The precision of the method (RSD) was lower than 5.0%. Accuracy was evaluated by determination of the percentage of MDMA recovered by the assay (99.13%), and relative Uncertainty was 6.66%. With this method, it was analyzed real seized samples of MDMA, results showed that all samples contained MDMA and concentration was between 18.15-59.84 % w/w. Conclusions: The method is selective, sensitive, and specific, with possible application in forensic analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about concentration of MDMA in ecstasy pills in Chile. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research,.

Arias M. F.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Herrera M. T.,Ministerio de Salud de Chile
Revista Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias | Year: 2016

Until 2007, the diagnosis of tuberculosis was only based on smear and culture. Since then multiple diagnostic tests based on molecular technologies have emerged, with the objective of get faster and more sensitive diagnoses, and also to measure the resistance profile of the patients. The World Health Organization has recommended some of these tests for programmatic use. This article describes the methods currently implemented in the Institute of Public Health of Chile and those that are being evaluated and recently recommended by the World Health Organization. © 2016, Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias. All rights reserved.

Araya P.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Fernandez J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Del Canto F.,University of Chile | Seoane M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | And 6 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from casepatients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene. © Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

Luchsinger V.,University of Chile | Ruiz M.,University of Chile | Zunino E.,Hospital Of Infecciosos Dr Lucio Cordova | Martinez M.A.,University of Chile | And 9 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2013

Background Adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a relevant worldwide cause of morbidity and mortality, however the aetiology often remains uncertain and the therapy is empirical. We applied conventional and molecular diagnostics to identify viruses and atypical bacteria associated with CAP in Chile. Methods We used sputum and blood cultures, IgG/IgM serology and molecular diagnostic techniques (PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR) for detection of classical and atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumoniae) and respiratory viruses (adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenzavirus, rhinovirus, coronavirus) in adults >18 years old presenting with CAP in Santiago from February 2005 to September 2007. Severity was qualified at admission by Fine's pneumonia severity index. Results Overall detection in 356 enrolled adults were 92 (26%) cases of a single bacterial pathogen, 80 (22%) cases of a single viral pathogen, 60 (17%) cases with mixed bacterial and viral infection and 124 (35%) cases with no identified pathogen. Streptococcus pneumoniae and RSV were the most common bacterial and viral pathogens identified. Infectious agent detection by PCR provided greater sensitivity than conventional techniques. To our surprise, no relationship was observed between clinical severity and sole or coinfections. Conclusions The use of molecular diagnostics expanded the detection of viruses and atypical bacteria in adults with CAP, as unique or coinfections. Clinical severity and outcome were independent of the aetiological agents detected.

Escobar L.E.,Andrés Bello University | Peterson A.T.,University of Kansas | Favi M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Yung V.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. © 2013 Escobar et al.

Bueno S.M.,University of Santiago de Chile | Gonzalez P.A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Riedel C.A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Riedel C.A.,Andrés Bello University | And 3 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2011

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and respiratory distress and has been recognized for several decades as a major health and economic burden worldwide. This virus has developed several virulence mechanisms to impair the establishment of a protective immune response to re-infection. Accordingly, inefficient immunological memory is usually generated after exposure to this pathogen. Furthermore, it has been shown that RSV can actively promote the induction of an inadequate cellular immune response at the site of infection that causes exacerbated inflammation in the respiratory tract. Such an inflammatory response is both inefficient for clearing the virus and can be responsible for detrimental symptoms, such as asthma and wheezing. Recent data suggest that RSV possesses molecular mechanisms to induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate the immune response and impair viral clearance by reducing IFN-γ production. Here, we discuss recent research leading to the identification of RSV virulence factors that are responsible of promoting a pro-inflammatory environment at the airways and their implications on pathogenicity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Yung V.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Favi M.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Fernandez J.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.

Objective: Identification for Mycobacterium assay based in the new technology of reverse hybridization DNA probe assay was evaluated (Line Probe Assays-LiPAs). Methods: 74 strains belonging to 23 mycobacterial species or complex classified previously by classical biochemical methods, genetic probes and PRA (patterns of restriction analysis), with and without specific pattern expected to be identified at specie level were analysed.The utilized test, GenoType CM (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Alemania), is able of identifying 14 of the most common mycobacterial species after a multiplex PCR technique targeting a 23S rRNA gene region followed by reverse hybridization technology. Results: Sensitivity of 94.0% (95% CI: 84.4-98.0%) and specificity of 88.0% (95% CI:46.7-99.3%) were obtained with the assay. Conclusion: GenoType CM is an appropriated tool for the identification of Mycobacteria, rapid, sensitive, operational in the current working conditions of the National Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteria in Chile and it might constitute a real breakthrough for shortening the time delay in the procedure, providing a better opportunity to use treatment only in cases where it is required.

Guzman L.M.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Castillo D.,Institute Salud Publica Of Chile | Aguilera S.O.,Andrés Bello University
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2010

Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by clonal B cell attack of the exocrine glands and dysregulated expression of B cell-activating factor (BAFF). Based upon the current data of increased rates of lymphoid malignancy, as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is associated with SS, we propose the detection of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene in those patients as a predictor of malignant clonal expansion. To test our proposal, we examined the IgH clonal rearrangements in SS patients (60) and healthy control subjects (42) having chronic non-specific sialadenitis, to determine the presence of clonal B cells in minor labial salivary glands (MSG) of SS patients. Clonal B cell expansion was assessed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays: (i) semi-nested PCR, against sequences encoding framework regions FR3, FR2 and FR1c of the variable chain IgH gene in B cells present in the MSG infiltrate; and (ii) the PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, against the major and minor breakpoint regions of the Bcl-2 oncogene coupled with a variable segment of the IgH to assess the Bcl-2/JH translocation. When FR3, FR2 and FR1c primers were employed, we detected B cell monoclonality in 87% of the SS patients and 19% of the control subjects. The association between inflammation severity of the MSG pattern and the presence of B cell clonality was found to be statistically significant (P < 0·01). We concluded that the presence of B cell clonality in MSG can be used as a index of an altered microenvironment favouring the development of lymphoma in SS patients. © 2010 British Society for Immunology.

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