Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII

Madrid, Spain

Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII

Madrid, Spain
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Calero O.,CIBER ISCIII | Calero O.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,Institute of Sanitary Research Hospital la Paz IdIPaz | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405) with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP) involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players. © 2012 Calero et al.

Calero O.,Research Center Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Calero O.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,Research Center Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas | Bullido M.J.,Research Hospital la Paz IdIPaz | And 23 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) represent two distinct clinical entities belonging to a wider group, generically named as conformational disorders that share common pathophysiologic mechanisms. It is well-established that the APOE ε4 allele and homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 in the PRNP gene are the major genetic risk factors for AD and human prion diseases, respectively. However, the roles of PRNP in AD, and APOE in CJD are controversial. In this work, we investigated for the first time, APOE and PRNP genotypes simultaneously in 474 AD and 175 sporadic CJD (sCJD) patients compared to a common control population of 335 subjects. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and control subjects were studied by logistic regression analysis using age and gender as covariates. The effect size of risk association and synergy factors were calculated using the logistic odds ratio estimates. Our data confirmed that the presence of APOE ε4 allele is associated with a higher risk of developing AD, while homozygosity at PRNP gene constitutes a risk for sCJD. Opposite, we found no association for PRNP with AD, nor for APOE with sCJD. Interestingly, when AD and sCJD patients were stratified according to their respective main risk genes (APOE for AD, and PRNP for sCJD), we found statistically significant associations for the other gene in those strata at higher previous risk. Synergy factor analysis showed a synergistic age-dependent interaction between APOE and PRNP in both AD (SF = 3.59, p = 0.027), and sCJD (SF = 7.26, p = 0.005). We propose that this statistical epistasis can partially explain divergent data from different association studies. Moreover, these results suggest that the genetic interaction between APOE and PRNP may have a biological correlate that is indicative of shared neurodegenerative pathways involved in AD and sCJD. © 2011 Calero et al.

Munoz-Nieto M.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Ramonet N.,Hospital Bajo Cinca Of Fraga | Lopez-Gaston J.I.,Hospital Miguel Servet | Cuadrado-Corrales N.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2013

Genetic human prion diseases are autosomal dominant disorders associated with different mutations in the PRNP gene that are manifested as distinct clinical phenotypes. Here, we report a new pathogenic missense mutation (c.[643A>G], p.[I215V]) in the PRNP gene associated with three pathologically confirmed cases: two of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and one of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in two different families from the same geographical region in Spain. This mutation has not been found in any of more than 2,000 control cases studied. It represents a conservative amino acid change, and the same change is observed in the PRNP gene from other species. The two CJD cases were homozygous at codon 129 (M/M), but showed divergent clinical phenotypes with onset at ages 55 and 77 years and illness durations of 15 and 6 months, respectively. The postmortem neuropathological analysis of these cases showed homogeneous features compatible with CJD. Interestingly, the AD case (a brother of one of the CJD cases) was heterozygous at codon 129 (M/V). No familiar history was documented for any of the cases, suggesting a de novo mutation, or a partial, age-dependent penetration of the mutation, perhaps related to codon 129 status. This new mutation extends the list of known pathogenic mutations responsible for genetic CJD, reinforces the clinical heterogeneity of the disease, and advocates for the inclusion of PRNP gene examination in the diagnostic workup of patients with poorly classifiable dementia, even in the absence of family history. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Calero O.,CIBER ISCIII | Calero O.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,CIBER ISCIII | Bullido M.J.,Institute of Sanitary Research Hospital la Paz IdIPaz | And 20 more authors.
Prion | Year: 2012

Perturbations of calcium homeostasis have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. A common polymorphism (rs2986017) in the CALHM1 gene, coding for a regulator of calcium homeostasis, is a genetic risk factor for the development of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although some authors failed to confirm these results, a meta-analysis has shown that this polymorphism modulates the age at disease onset. Furthermore, a recent association study has explored the genetic variability of CALHM1 gene and two adjacent paralog genes (CALHM3 and CALHM2) in an Asian population. Since several lines of evidence suggest that AD and prion diseases share pathophysiologic mechanisms, we investigated for the first time the genetic variability of the gene cluster formed by CALHM1 and its paralogs in a series of 235 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients, and compared the genotypic and allelic frequencies with those presented in 329 controls from the same ancestry. As such, this work also represents the first association analysis of CALHM genes in sCJD. Sequencing analysis of the complete coding regions of the genes demonstrated the presence of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the CALHM genes. We observed that rs4918016-rs2986017-rs2986018 and rs41287502-rs41287500 polymorphic sites at CALHM1 were in linkage disequilibrium. We found marginal associations for sCJD risk at CALHM1 polymorphic sites rs41287502 and rs41287500 [coding for two linked missense mutations p.(Met323Ile); (Gly282Cys)], and rs2986017 [p.(Leu86Pro)]. Interestingly, a TGG haplotype defined by the rs4918016- rs2986017-rs2986018 block was associated with sCJD. These findings underscore the need of future multinational collaborative initiatives in order to corroborate these seminal data. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.

Gomez-Junyent J.,University of Barcelona | Paredes-Zapata D.,University of Barcelona | De Las Parras E.R.,Institute Salud Carlos III CNM ISCIII | Gonzalez-Costello J.,University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2016

Solid organ transplant recipients can acquire Strongyloides stercoralis from an infected donor. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis in immunocompromised individuals may be challenging due to a lower sensitivity of available parasitological and serological methods, compared with immunocompetent individuals. Recently, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool has been developed for S. stercoralis diagnosis. We report two cases of S. stercoralis infection transmitted by a donor to two solid organ transplant recipients, who were diagnosed with RT-PCR in stool. This test could play an important role in S. stercoralis diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients, facilitating rapid treatment initiation and reducing the risk of severe strongyloidiasis. Adherence to current recommendations of screening among donors and recipients from endemic areas is also urgently needed. © Copyright 2016 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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