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Olivera-Muzante J.,Area de Produccion y Sanidad Ovina | Gil J.,Area de Teriogenologia | Fierro S.,Area de Produccion y Sanidad Ovina | Menchaca A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to improve the reproductive performance of a prostaglandin (PG) F 2α-based protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in sheep (Synchrovine®: two doses of 160 μg of delprostenate 7 d apart, with TAI 42 h after second dose). Three experiments were performed: Experiment 1) two doses of a PGF 2α analogue (delprostenate 80 or 160 μg) given 7 d apart; Experiment 2) two PGF 2α treatment intervals (7 or 8 d apart) and two times of TAI (42 or 48 h); and Experiment 3) insemination 12 h after estrus detection or TAI with concurrent GnRH. Experiments involved 1131 ewes that received cervical insemination with fresh semen during the breeding season (32/34 °S-58 °W). Estrous behaviour, conception rate, prolificacy, and fecundity (ultrasonography 30-40 d), were assessed. In Experiment 1, ewes showing estrus between 25 and 48 h or at 72 h after the second PGF 2α did not differ between 80 and 160 μg of delprostenate (73 vs 86%, P = 0.07; and 92 vs 95%, P = NS, respectively). Conception rate and fecundity were lower (P < 0.05) using 80 vs 160 μg (0.24 vs 0.42, and 0.27 vs 0.47, respectively). In Experiment 2, giving PGF 2α 7 d apart resulted in higher (P < 0.05) rates of conception (0.45 and 0.51) and fecundity (0.49 and 0.53) than treatments 8 d apart (conception: 0.33 and 0.29; fecundity: 0.33 and 0.34) for TAI at 42 and 48 h, respectively. In Experiment 3, rates of conception, prolificacy and fecundity were similar (NS) between Synchrovine® with TAI at 42 h (0.50, 1.13, and 0.56) and AI 12 h after estrus detection (0.47, 1.18, and 0.55), and Synchrovine® plus GnRH at TAI (0.38, 1.28, and 0.49). However, all TAI treatments had lower (P < 0.05) prolificacy and fecundity compared to AI following detection of spontaneous estrus (1.39 and 0.83, respectively). In conclusion, the Synchrovine® protocol was: a) more successful using 160 vs 80 μg delprostenate; b) more successful with a 7 d than 8 d PGF 2α interval; c) similarly effective for TAI versus AI 12 h after estrus detection; and d) not improved by giving GnRH at TAI. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Schlapp G.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Goyeneche L.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Fernandez G.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo | Menchaca A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | Crispo M.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo
Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics | Year: 2015

Methods: A total of 142 recipient females were transferred with 2,931 embryos and treated with a single injection of tolfenamic acid (1 mg/kg; n = 54 females with 1,129 embryos), flunixin meglumine (2.5 mg/kg; n = 46 females with 942 embryos), or bi-distilled water (10 mL/kg) as control group (n = 42 females with 860 embryos). Pregnancy was checked 2 weeks after embryo transfer, delivery was registered on the due date, and litter size was recorded on Day 7 after birth.Purpose: To evaluate the effect of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs tolfenamic acid and flunixin meglumine in pregnancy rate and embryo survival of recipient mice subjected to embryo transfer.Results: Pregnancy rate of tolfenamic acid treated females was significantly higher than flunixin group (P < 0.05) and showed a tendency to be higher when compared to the control group (P = 0.06). The number of pups born from transferred embryos in pregnant females was significantly higher for both treatment groups compared to controls (P < 0.05). Number of pups from total transferred embryos was higher for both treatment groups (P < 0.05) when compared to controls.Conclusion: The use of tolfenamic acid at the time of embryo transfer improves both pregnancy rate and number of live pups in recipient mice, with optimal effects observed with flunixin meglumine. We suggest that the use of tolfenamic acid has beneficial effects on the maintenance of pregnancy and embryo survival in recipient mice, which should be taken into account for further studies in other mammalian females. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Menchaca A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | Anegon I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Whitelaw C.B.A.,Roslin Institute | Baldassarre H.,McGill University | Crispo M.,Institute Pasteur Of Montevideo
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Genetically engineered sheep and goats represent useful models applied to proof of concepts, large-scale production of novel products or processes, and improvement of animal traits, which is of interest in biomedicine, biopharma, and livestock. This disruptive biotechnology arose in the 80s by injecting DNA fragments into the pronucleus of zygote-staged embryos. Pronuclear microinjection set the transgenic concept into people's mind but was characterized by inefficient and often frustrating results mostly because of uncontrolled and/or random integration and unpredictable transgene expression. Somatic cell nuclear transfer launched the second wave in the late 90s, solving several weaknesses of the previous technique by making feasible the transfer of a genetically modified and fully characterized cell into an enucleated oocyte, capable of cell reprogramming to generate genetically engineered animals. Important advances were also achieved during the 2000s with the arrival of new techniques like the lentivirus system, transposons, RNA interference, site-specific recombinases, and sperm-mediated transgenesis. We are now living the irruption of the third technological wave in which genome edition is possible by using endonucleases, particularly the CRISPR/Cas system. Sheep and goats were recently produced by CRISPR/Cas9, and for sure, cattle will be reported soon. We will see new genetically engineered farm animals produced by homologous recombination, multiple gene editing in one-step generation and conditional modifications, among other advancements. In the following decade, genome edition will continue expanding our technical possibilities, which will contribute to the advancement of science, the development of clinical or commercial applications, and the improvement of people's life quality around the world. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Vilarino M.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | Menchaca A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

The objective was to determine serum progesterone concentrations, ovarian responses, and pregnancy rate in sheep inseminated following a short-term protocol (6 days of treatment) with a previously used controlled internal drug release-G (CIDR-G) device. In experiment 1, 30 ewes were put on a short-term protocol using a CIDR-G of first use (new devices, N = 10), second use (previously used for 6 days, N = 10), or third use (previously used twice for 6 days, N = 10). All ewes were given prostaglandin F2α (10 mg dinoprost) and eCG (300 IU) im at device withdrawal. Mean serum progesterone concentrations were greater for ewes treated with new versus reused devices (P < 0.05), but there were no significant effects on ovarian follicular development, namely: proportion of ewes that reached ovulation/treated ewes (8/10, 9/10, and 10/10); day of emergence of the ovulatory follicle (2.9 ± 1.8, 1.8 ± 2.4, and 2.5 ± 1.1 days after CIDR-G insertion); and lifespan of the ovulatory follicle (5.4 ± 1.8, 6.5 ± 2.2, and 5.6 ± 1.0 days) for devices of first, second, and third use, respectively. The proportion of ewes that ovulated from a new follicle emerging after CIDR-G insertion was 100% (10/10) with new devices, and 77.8% (7/9) and 80% (8/10) with devices used two and three times, respectively (P = not significant). In experiment 2, ewes (N = 319) received the short-term protocol as in experiment 1, using CIDR-G of first or third use (N = 158 and N = 161, respectively) for 6 days, with prostaglandin F2α and eCG given im at device withdrawal. Intrauterine (laparoscopy) fixed-time AI with fresh semen (100 × 106 sperm) was done 52 to 57 hours after device withdrawal. Pregnancy rates were 80.4% (127/158) and 71.4% (115/161) for devices of first and third use, respectively (P = 0.06). We concluded that the CIDR-G with short-term protocol was effective for estrous synchronization and ovulation, with lower serum progesterone concentrations for reused devices. Three times used CIDR-G yielded a pregnancy rate >70%, which tended to be lower than that obtained with new devices, adding evidence of the detrimental effect of low serum progesterone concentrations on fertility in sheep. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Nunez-Olivera R.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | De Castro T.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | Garcia-Pintos C.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Uruguay | Bo G.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration associated to fixed-time AI (FTAI) on follicular dynamics, ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) development and serum progesterone concentrations. Multiparous suckled Hereford cows (n=46) in anestrus with 60-75 days postpartum were used. Females received an intravaginal device containing 0.5g of progesterone during 8 days and 2mg of estradiol benzoate i.m. at device insertion. At device removal 500μg of cloprostenol and 0.5mg of estradiol cypionate were administered i.m., and FTAI was performed 52-56h later. Cows were divided into two experimental groups to receive 400IU of eCG i.m. at device removal (n=23), while control group did not receive eCG (n=23). Daily ovarian ultrasonography (7.5MHz transducer) and progesterone concentrations determined by RIA were assayed from device removal until 30 or 14 days after FTAI, respectively. Treatment with eCG increased ovulation rate [65.2% (15/23) vs. 30.4% (7/23); P=0.018], ovulatory follicle diameter (14.5±0.4 vs. 13.1±0.7mm, mean±SEM; P=0.081), CL area from 6 to 14 days after FTAI (344.3±25.1 vs. 274.2±23.9mm2; P=0.045) and mean serum progesterone concentrations from FTAI to 14 days later (3.0±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.2ng/ml; P=0.001), in comparison with control cows. In conclusion, the addition of eCG to a progesterone and estradiol' based treatment for FTAI improves ovulation rate and luteal function in anestrous cows. These findings have implications in order to increase pregnancy rates in FTAI treatments in Bos taurus beef cattle. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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