Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Caa Catí, Argentina
Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Caa Catí, Argentina

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Piccardi M.,National University of Cordoba | Capitaine Funes A.,DAIRYTECH S.R.L. | Balzarini M.,National University of Cordoba | Balzarini M.,CONICET | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to estimate the relative contribution of factors affecting how quickly cattle become pregnant in Argentine dairy herds. Data from 76,401 cows from 249 dairy herds were analyzed. A hazard model was used to explore days open (DO). The factors considered were milk yield, lactation number, calving season, and breeding technique (i.e., type of service: artificial insemination [AI], or combined service). Cows with lower milk yield had 1.09 to 1.38 higher likelihood to become pregnant than those with higher milk yield (P < 0.0001). The number of DO increased linearly with an increasing number of lactations (P < 0.0001). Cows calving in fall-winter had a shorter interval to conception than those calving in summer. The hazard rate for combined service was 1.27; therefore, cows with combined service were more likely to become pregnant during the observation period than those bred by AI. The difference in DO between cows of high versus low milk yield was smaller when dairies used AI as the main breeding technique than when they used combined service. Furthermore, dairies using mainly combined service had lower milk yield (5693.7 L) than those using mainly AI (7684.4 L). Although lactation number and calving season contributed to explain the number of DO, the influence of production level, the type of service, and the interaction between them was also associated with reproductive efficiency in Argentine dairy herds. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sa Filho M.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Baldrighi J.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Sales J.N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Crepaldi G.A.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (FWE) and ovulation in fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) synchronization protocols using norgestomet ear implants (NORG) in Bos indicus cattle. In Experiment 1, the synchronization of FWE was evaluated when two different estradiol esters in different doses [2. mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 2.5. mg EV or 5. mg estradiol valerate (EV)] were administered with NORG implant insertion in B. indicus cattle (estrous cyclic heifers and cows with suckling calves; n=10 per treatment). After estradiol treatment, ovarian ultrasonic exams were performed once daily to detect the interval between treatment and FWE. There were significant treatment-by-animal category interaction (P=0.05) on the interval from the estradiol treatment to FWE. An earlier (P<0.0001) and less variable (P=0.02) interval from estradiol treatment to FWE was observed in heifers treated with EB (2.5 ± 0.2; mean ± SE) than in those treated with 2.5. mg EV (4.2 ± 0.3) or 5. mg EV (6.1 ± 0.6). Cows treated with 5. mg EV (4.0 ± 0.5) had longer (P=0.05) interval than cows receiving EB (2.5 ± 0.2), however, there was an intermediate interval in those cows treated with 2.5. mg EV (3.1 ± 0.4). In Experiment 2, the number of uses of the NORG implant (new; n=305 or previously used once; n=314) and three different ovulation induction hormones [0.5. mg estradiol cypionate (EC) at implant removal (n=205), 1. mg EB given 24. h after implant removal (n=219), or 100. μg gonadorelin (GnRH) given at FTAI (n=195)] were evaluated in Nelore heifers (2 × 3 factorial design). Similar pregnancy per AI (P/AI; 30 days after FTAI; P>0.05) were achieved using each of the three ovulation induction hormones (EB=40.6%; EC = 48.3%, or GnRH = 48.7%) and with a new (47.2%) or once-used NORG implant (44.3%). In Experiment 3, the effect of different ovulation induction hormones for FTAI [1. mg EC at NORG implant removal (n=228), 10. μg buserelin acetate at FTAI (GnRH; n=212) or both treatments (EC. +. GnRH; n=215)] on P/AI was evaluated in suckled beef cows treated with a once-used NORG implant and EB to synchronize the FWE. Similar P/AI (P=0.71) were obtained using GnRH (50.9%), EC (51.8%) or both treatments (54.9%) as ovulation induction hormones. Therefore, both doses of EV (2.5 or 5.0. mg) with NORG implant delayed and increased the variation of the day of new FWE compared with EB in B. indicus cattle. These effects were more pronounced in B. indicus heifers than cows. Synchronization protocols for FTAI with either a new or once-used NORG implant with EB at insertion to induce a new FWE and either the use of EB, EC or GnRH as ovulation induction hormones may be successful in B. indicus heifers. Also, when a once-used NORG implant was used, either the administration of EC, GnRH or both as ovulation inducers resulted in similar P/AI in suckled B. indicus cows, showing no additive effect of the combination of both ovulation induction hormones. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Baruselli P.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Ferreira R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Sales J.N.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Gimenes L.U.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

Currently, timed ovulation induction and fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in superstimulated donors and synchronization protocols for fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET) in recipients can be performed using GnRH or estradiol plus progesterone/progestin (P4)-releasing devices and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF2α). The control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation at predetermined times, without estrus detection, has facilitated donor and recipient management. However, because Bos taurus cows have subtle differences in their reproductive physiology compared with Bos indicus cattle, one cannot assume that similar responses will be achieved. The present review will focus on the importance of orchestrating donor and recipient management to assure better logistics of procedures to achieve more desirable results with embryo collection and transfer. In addition, this will provide clear evidence that the use of FTAI in superstimulated donors and FTET in embryo recipients eliminates the need to detect estrus with satisfactory results. These self-appointed programs reduce labor and animal handling, facilitating the use of embryo transfer in beef and dairy cattle. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Bo G.A.,National University of Villa María | Baruselli P.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Animal | Year: 2014

The main objective of the implementation of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle is to produce a sustained genetic progress in the herd. Although AI is an old reproductive biotechnology, its widespread implementation is very recent and is mainly because of the use of protocols that allows AI without oestrus detection, commonly called fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). The development of FTAI protocols also allowed the application of AI in larger, extensively managed herds and especially in suckled cows instead of restricting the breeding programmes to the heifers. Fixed-time AI treatments are widely used in South America, with about 3 000 000 cows inseminated in the last season in Argentina and about 8 000 000 in Brazil. The objective of this review is to present and describe the various treatments available and some of the factors that may affect pregnancy rates in beef cattle. © 2014 The Animal Consortium.

PubMed | University of Saskatchewan, Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC, FinInVitro Reproducao Animal, São Paulo State University and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Plasma FSH profiles, in vitro embryo production (IVP) after ovum pickup (OPU), and establishment of pregnancy with IVP embryos were compared in untreated Holstein oocyte donors and those superstimulated with multiple injections or a single intramuscular (IM) injection of porcine FSH (pFSH) in hyaluronan (HA). Plasma FSH profiles were determined in 23 heifers randomly allocated to one of four groups. Controls received no treatment, whereas the F200 group received 200 mg of pFSH in four doses, 12 hours apart. The F200HA and F300HA groups received 200- or 300-mg pFSH in 5 mL or 7.5 mL, respectively of a 0.5% HA solution by a single IM injection. Plasma FSH levels were determined before the first pFSH treatment and every 6 hours over 96 hours. All data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts. Circulating FSH area under curve (AUC) in pFSH-treated animals was greater than that in the control group (P = 0.02). Although the AUC did not differ among FSH-treated groups (P = 0.56), the total period with elevated plasma FSH was greater in the F200 group than in the HA groups (P < 0.0001). However, the F300HA group had a greater AUC than the F200HA group (P = 0.006), with a similar total period with elevated plasma FSH (P = 0.17). The IVP was performed in 90 nonlactating Holstein cows randomly allocated to one of the four treatment groups as in the first experiment. A greater proportion of medium-sized (6-10 mm) follicles was observed in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group (P < 0.0001). Also, numbers of follicles (P = 0.01), cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved (P = 0.01) and matured (P = 0.02), cleavage rates (P = 0.002), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) were greater in cows receiving pFSH, regardless of the treatment group. Cows in the F200HA group had a greater recovery rate (P = 0.009), number of COCs cultured (P = 0.04), and blastocysts produced per OPU session (P = 0.06) than cows in the F300HA group. Similar pregnancy rates were observed 50 to 60 days after transferring IVP embryos from donors in the different treatment groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a single IM injection of pFSH combined in 0.5% HA resulted in similar plasma FSH profiles as twice-daily pFSH treatments. Treatment of nonlactating donors with pFSH, with or without HA, resulted in increased IVP over untreated controls. A single dose of 200 mg of pFSH in 0.5% HA resulted in greater IVP than 300-mg pFSH in HA. Finally, pregnancy rates with IVP embryos were similar, regardless donor treatment.

Bryan M.A.,VetSouth Ltd. | Bo G.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Emslie F.R.,Bomac Laboratories Ltd.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2013

In seasonally calving, pasture-based dairy farm systems, the interval from calving to first estrus is a critical factor affecting reproductive efficiency. This study evaluated the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) on the reproductive response of lactating, seasonally calving dairy cows diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus by rectal palpation. Cows on 15 commercial dairy farms were selected for initial inclusion based on nonobserved estrus by 7d before the planned start of mating. All cows were palpated rectally and evaluated for body condition score and ovary score, and were included for treatment according to the trial protocol if diagnosed with anovulatory anestrus. All cows received a standard anestrous treatment protocol consisting of insertion of a progesterone device, injection of 100μg of GnRH at the time of device insertion, and injection of PGF2α at device removal (GPG/P4). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (6d or 7d) for duration of progesterone device insertion. Within each of these groups, cows were further randomly assigned to receive either 400IU of eCG at device removal or to remain untreated as controls, resulting in a 2×2 arrangement of treatment groups: (1) 6-d device and no eCG (n=484); (2) 6-d device and eCG (n=462); (3) 7-d device and no eCG (n=546); and (4) 7-d device and eCG (n=499). Cows were detected for estrus from the time of progesterone device removal and were inseminated; those not detected in estrus within 60h after progesterone device removal received 100μg of GnRH and were inseminated at 72h. The primary outcomes considered were proportion of cows conceiving within 7d of the beginning of breeding (7-d conception rate; 7-d CR), proportion pregnant within 28d (28-d in calf rate; 28-d ICR), and days to conception (DTC). We found no significant differences between the 6- and 7-d insertion periods and found no 6- or 7-d insertion period × eCG treatment interactions. Inclusion of eCG into either length of GPG/P4 protocol increased 7-d CR (36.0 vs. 30.6%) and 28-d ICR (58.6 vs. 52.3%) and decreased median days to conception. The use of eCG in GPG/P4 breeding protocols will improve reproductive efficiency in seasonally calving, anestrous dairy cattle. © 2013 American Dairy Science Association.

Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan | Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2012

Superovulation protocols have improved greatly since the early days of bovine embryo transfer when purified gonadotrophins were not available, follicular wave dynamics were unknown physiological phenomena and prostaglandins were not available. Although superstimulatory protocols in cattle are normally initiated mid-cycle, elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation have had a great impact on the application of on-farm embryo transfer. However, the most common treatment for the synchronisation of follicular wave emergence involves the use of oestradiol, which cannot be used in many parts of the world. Therefore, the need for alternative treatments has driven recent research. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave following ovulation induced by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Alternatively, it has been shown that it may be possible to ignore follicular wave status and, by extending the treatment protocol, induce subordinate follicles to superovulate. Finally, the short half-life of pituitary FSH necessitates twice-daily treatments, which are time-consuming, stressful and subject to error. Recent treatment protocols have permitted superstimulation with a single FSH treatment or two treatments 48h apart, reducing the need for animal handling during gonadotrophin treatments. © IETS 2012.

Butler S.A.A.,University of Queensland | Phillips N.J.,University of Queensland | Boe-Hansen G.B.,University of Queensland | Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

The objectives were: (i) improve understanding of the ovarian responses of Bos indicus heifers treated with different ovulation synchronisation protocols, (ii) compare ovarian responses of B. indicus heifers treated with intravaginal progesterone releasing device (IPRD)+oestradiol benzoate (ODB) versus a conventional prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) protocol and (iii) investigate whether reducing the amount of progesterone (P4) in the IPRD, and treatment with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) would increase the proportion of heifers with normal ovarian function during the synchronised and return cycles. Two-year-old Brahman (n=30) and Brahman-cross (n=34) heifers were randomly allocated to three IPRD-treatment groups: (i) standard-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate® 1.56g P4; n=17); (ii) half-dose IPRD (Cue-Mate® 0.78g P4; n=15); (iii) half-dose IPRD+300IU eCG at IPRD removal (n=14), and a non-IPRD control group (iv) 2×PGF2α (500μg cloprostenol) on Days -16 and -2 (n=18). IPRD-treated heifers received 250μg cloprostenol at IPRD insertion (Day -10) and IPRD removal (Day -2) and 1mg ODB on Days -10 and -1. Ovarian function was evaluated by ultrasonography and plasma P4 throughout the synchronised and return cycles. The mean diameter of the dominant follicle observed at 54-56h after IPRD removal, was greater for heifers which ovulated than heifers which did not ovulate (P<0.001; 14.5±1.1 vs. 9.3±0.6mm, respectively). The prevalence of IPRD-treated heifers with ovarian dysfunction (persistent CL, failure to re-ovulate, shortened luteal phase) was 39%. This relatively high prevalence of ovarian dysfunction may explain the commonly reported, lower than expected pregnancy rates to FTAI in B. indicus heifers treated to synchronise ovulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Bo G.A.,National University of Villa María | Mapletoft R.J.,University of Saskatchewan
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Superovulation protocols have evolved greatly over the past 40 to 50 years. The development of commercial pituitary extracts and prostaglandins in the 1970s, and partially purified pituitary extracts and progesterone-releasing devices in the 1980s and 1990s have provided for the development of many of the protocols that we use today. Furthermore, the knowledge of follicular wave dynamics through the use of real-time ultrasonography and the development of the means by which follicular wave emergence can be controlled have provided new practical approaches. Although some embryo transfer practitioners still initiate superstimulatory treatments during mid-cycle in donor cows, the elective control of follicular wave emergence and ovulation has had a great effect on the application of on-farm embryo transfer, especially when large groups of donors need to be superstimulated at the same time. The most common treatment for the synchronization of follicular wave emergence for many years has been estradiol and progestins. In countries where estradiol cannot be used, practitioners have turned to alternative treatments for the synchronization of follicle wave emergence, such as mechanical follicle ablation or the administration of GnRH to induce ovulation. An approach that has shown promise is to initiate FSH treatments at the time of the emergence of the new follicular wave after GnRH-induced ovulation of an induced persistent follicle. Alternatively, it has been suggested recently that it might be possible to ignore follicular wave status, and by extending the treatment protocol, induce small antral follicles to grow and superovulate. Recently, the mixing of FSH with sustained release polymers or the development of long-acting recombinant FSH products have permitted superstimulation with a single or alternatively, two gonadotropin treatments 48 hours apart, reducing the need for animal handling during superstimulation. Although the number of transferable embryos per donor cow superstimulated has not increased, the protocols that are used today have increased the numbers of transferable embryos recovered per unit time and have facilitated the application of on-farm embryo transfer programs. They are practical, easy to administer by farm personnel, and more importantly, they eliminate the need for detecting estrus. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Rodriguez-Villamil P.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Ongaratto F.L.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Fernandez Taranco M.,National University of Villa María | Bo G.A.,Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC | Bo G.A.,National University of Villa María
Reproduction in Domestic Animals | Year: 2014

Contents: Three experiments were designed to test a solid-surface vitrification system for bovine in vitro-produced embryos and to develop a simple method of in-straw dilution after warming, which can be potentially used for direct transfer in the field. Experiment 1 evaluated embryo survival rates (i.e. re-expansion and hatching) after vitrification and warming in three different solutions: VS1 (20% ethylene glycol (EG) + 20% propanediol (PROH) + 0.25 m trehalose (Tr)), VS2 (20% EG + 1M Tr) or VS3 (30% EG + 0.75 m Tr). Re-expansion and hatching rates were higher (p < 0.05) for embryos vitrified in VS3 (72.2 ± 1.9 and 58.2 ± 0.8) than VS1 (64.4 ± 0.9 and 37.2 ± 2.5) or VS2 (68.5 ± 1.5 and 49.6 ± 1.0; p < 0.05). Experiment 2 was designed to compare two methods of vitrification: glass micropipettes or solid surface, using the VS1 or VS3 solutions. No significant differences were detected between the two methods; but re-expansion and hatching rates were higher (p < 0.05) with VS3 (73.5 ± 3.1 and 47.1 ± 2.1) than VS1 (63.3 ± 3.3 and 39.7 ± 2.8). In experiment 3, embryos were vitrified by solid surface in VS1 or VS3 solutions and cryoprotectants were diluted in-straw after warming in a TCM 199, 0.25 m sucrose solution or holding media. Survival rates of embryos vitrified in VS3 did not differ between those exposed to 0.25 m sucrose (74.7 ± 1.3 and 57.2 ± 2.2) or holding (77.3 ± 1.4 and 58.0 ± 2.5) medium after warming; however, survival rates of embryos vitrified in VS1 were higher (p < 0.05) in those exposed to 0.25 m sucrose (67.7 ± 2.3 and 47.0 ± 1.7) than holding medium (54.5 ± 1.0 and 27.7 ± 3.1). In conclusion, solid-surface vitrification using simplified EG-based solutions and in-straw dilution with holding media may be a practical alternative for cryopreservation and direct transfer of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Loading Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC collaborators
Loading Institute Reproduccion Animal Cordoba IRAC collaborators