Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT

Villanueva del Río y Minas, Spain

Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT

Villanueva del Río y Minas, Spain
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Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Bailon E.G.,Centro Apicola Regional | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Nosema ceranae has been suggested to be replacing Nosema apis in some populations of Apis mellifera honeybees. However, this replacement from one to the other is not supported when studying the distribution and prevalence of both microsporidia in professional apiaries in Spanish territories (transverse study), their seasonal pattern in experimental hives with co-infection or their prevalence at individual level (either in worker bees or drones). Nevertheless, N. ceranae has shown to present a higher prevalence at all the studied levels that could indicate any advantage for its development over N. apis or that it is more adapted to Spanish conditions. Also, both microsporidia show a different pattern of preference for its development according to the prevalence in the different Spanish bioclimatic belts studied. Finally, the fact that all analyses were carried out using an Internal PCR Control (IPC) newly developed guarantees the confidence of the data extracted from the PCR analyses. This IPC provides a useful tool for laboratory detection of honeybee pathogens. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Dias J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Microsporidiosis of adult honeybees caused by Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae is a common worldwide disease with negative impacts on colony strength and productivity. Few options are available to control the disease at present. The role of the queen in bee population renewal and the replacement of bee losses due to Nosema infection is vital to maintain colony homeostasis. Younger queens have a greater egg laying potential and they produce a greater proportion of uninfected newly eclosed bees to compensate for adult bee losses; hence, a field study was performed to determine the effect of induced queen replacement on Nosema infection in honey bee colonies, focusing on colony strength and honey production. In addition, the impact of long-term Nosema infection of a colony on the ovaries and ventriculus of the queen was evaluated. Queen replacement resulted in a remarkable decrease in the rates of Nosema infection, comparable with that induced by fumagillin treatment. However, detrimental effects on the overall colony state were observed due to the combined effects of stressors such as the queenless condition, lack of brood and high infection rates. The ovaries and ventriculi of queens in infected colonies revealed no signs of Nosema infection and there were no lesions in ovarioles or epithelial ventricular cells. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Higes M.,Centro Apicola Regional CAR | Meana A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Bartolome C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional CAR | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT
Environmental Microbiology Reports | Year: 2013

The worldwide beekeeping sector has been facing a grave threat, with losses up to 100-1000 times greater than those previously reported. Despite the scale of this honey bee mortality, the causes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, yet they are thought to be multifactorial processes. Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium recently detected in the European bee all over the world, has been implicated in the global phenomenon of colony loss, although its role remains controversial. A review of the current knowledge about this pathogen is presented focussing on discussion related with divergent results, trying to analyse the differences specially based on different methodologies applied and divisive aspects on pathology while considering a biological or veterinarian point of view. For authors, the disease produced by N.ceranae infection cannot be considered a regional problem but rather a global one, as indicated by the wide prevalence of this parasite in multiple hosts. Not only does this type of nosemosis causes a clear pathology on honeybees at both the individual and colony levels, but it also has significant effects on the production of honeybee products. Journal compilation © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Botias C.,Centro Apicola Regional CAR | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional CAR | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos Para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Garrido-Bailon E.,Centro Apicola Regional CAR | And 5 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science | Year: 2012

Microsporidiosis caused by infection with Nosema apis or Nosema ceranae has become one of the most widespread diseases of honey bees and can cause important economic losses for beekeepers. Honey can be contaminated by spores of both species and it has been reported as a suitable matrix to study the field prevalence of other honey bee sporulated pathogens. Historical honey sample collections from the CAR laboratory (Centro Apícola Regional) were analyzed by PCR to identify the earliest instance of emergence, and to determine whether the presence of Nosema spp. in honey was linked to the spread of these microsporidia in honey bee apiaries. A total of 240 frozen honey samples were analyzed by PCR and the results compared with rates of Nosema spp. infection in worker bee samples from different years and geographical areas. The presence of Nosema spp. in hive-stored honey from naturally infected honey bee colonies (from an experimental apiary) was also monitored, and although collected honey bees resulted in a more suitable sample to study the presence of microsporidian parasites in the colonies, a high probability of finding Nosema spp. in their hive-stored honey was observed. The first honey sample in which N. ceranae was detected dates back to the year 2000. In subsequent years, the number of samples containing N. ceranae tended to increase, as did the detection of Nosema spp. in adult worker bees. The presence of N. ceranae as early as 2000, long before generalized bee depopulation and colony losses in 2004 may be consistent with a long incubation period for nosemosis type C or related with other unknown factors. The current prevalence of nosemosis, primarily due to N. ceranae, has reached epidemic levels in Spain as confirmed by the analysis of worker honey bees and commercial honey. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Sanchez-Vioque R.,Centro Agrario Of Albaladejito | Sanchez-Vioque R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Polissiou M.,Agricultural University of Athens | Astraka K.,Agricultural University of Athens | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Essential oils of aromatic plants have numerous applications in fields like medicine, cosmetic and food industry. Nevertheless, the average yield of essential oil distilled from aromatic plants is below 5% (w/w) and consequently a considerable amount of solid residues is generated. These residues are especially rich in polyphenols that can be exploited as health-promoting compounds in food and feed or as anti-aging ingredients in cosmetic products, and thus to enhance the overall profitability of the aromatic plants. In this work, we have tentatively identified the polyphenols present in solid residues from the steam distillation of Cistus ladanifer, Lavandula×. intermedia, Santolina rosmarinifolia and Thymus mastichina, and evaluated their antioxidant and chelating activities by means of several in vitro methods, such as the β-carotene/linoleate model system, reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging, and iron and copper ion chelation. A Soxhlet extraction and an ultrasound-assisted extraction have been used in terms of comparison. Most of the extracts whether they were obtained by Soxhlet system or by ultrasonic method showed good antioxidant activities. Soxhlet ethanolic extract of T. mastichina showed an antioxidant activity comparable to the standard red grape pomace. The influence of the total polyphenol content on the chelating activities was not as important as on the antioxidant activities and the predominant role of certain polyphenols and/or the presence in the extracts of other compounds with a favourable chemical structure to metal complexation can be assumed. This was the case of the ultrasound ethanolic extract of C. ladanifer, which was the most effective in iron chelating activity despite its medium-to-low content of total polyphenols. All these data point to profit from these aromatic plant solid residues as a valuable source of bioactive compounds. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Santana-Meridas O.,Research Center Agraria Of Albaladejito Carretera | Santana-Meridas O.,Institute Recursos Humanos Para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Gonzalez-Coloma A.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Sciences | Sanchez-Vioque R.,Research Center Agraria Of Albaladejito Carretera | Sanchez-Vioque R.,Institute Recursos Humanos Para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT
Phytochemistry Reviews | Year: 2012

Agricultural industry produces billions of tons of residues in non-edible portions derived from the cultivation and processing of a particular crop. These residues can cause pollution, management and economic problems worldwide. This is the reason for the development of different strategies to use agricultural and industrial residues as a source of high value-added products. This review gives an overview of the potential of agricultural residues as raw materials for the production of bioactive products considering their availability, processing, and their chemical and biological properties. We also provide new data on the potential as biopesticides of some selected crop- and processing-based residues. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Sanchez-Vioque R.,Centro Agrario Of Albaladejito | Sanchez-Vioque R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Rodriguez-Conde M.F.,Centro Agrario Of Albaladejito | Reina-Urena J.V.,Centro Agrario Of Albaladejito | And 4 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2012

Corms, tepals and leaves of saffron are by-products generated during the processing of the stigmas of the flower (saffron spice). To increase the overall profitability of this crop, these by-products have been investigated as a potential source of antioxidant compounds. With this purpose, several in vitro antioxidant methods, such as the β-carotene/linoleate model system, reducing power, DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging, and iron and copper ion chelation have been assayed on corm, tepal and leaf extracts. Best antioxidant properties were observed for leaf extract, which totally inhibited the oxidation of β-carotene at 10μg/mL and showed a DPPH scavenger activity up to 32 times higher than those reported for traditional sources of antioxidants like grapes and berries. Tepal extract showed an extensive inhibition of β-carotene oxidation, and significant scavenging NO radical and Cu 2+-chelating activities. In contrast, corm extract was a poor antioxidant although showed a slight Cu 2+-chelating activity. It can be concluded that tepals and especially leaves of saffron constitute an exploitable source of antioxidant and metal chelating compounds. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Martin S.J.,University of Salford | Hardy J.,University of Sheffield | Villalobos E.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology Reports | Year: 2013

The honeybee pathogens Nosema ceranae and deformed wing virus (DWV) cause the collapse of honeybee colonies. Therefore, it is plausible that these two pathogens act synergistically to increase colony losses, since N.ceranae causes damage to the mid-gut epithelial ventricular cells and actively suppresses the honeybees' immune response, either of which could increase the virulence of viral pathogens within the bee. To test this hypothesis we exploited 322 Hawaiian honeybee colonies for which DWV prevalence and load is known. We determined via PCR that N.ceranae was present in 89-95% of these colonies, with no Nosema apis being detected. We found no significant difference in spore counts in colonies infected with DWV and those in which DWV was not detected, either on any of the four islands or across the entire honeybee population. Furthermore, no significant correlation between DWV loads (ΔCT levels) and N.ceranae spore counts was found, so these two pathogens are not acting synergistically. Although the Hawaiian honeybees have the highest known prevalence of N.ceranae in the world, with average number of spores been 2.7 million per bee, no acute Nosema related problems i.e. large-scale colony deaths, have been reported by Hawaiian beekeepers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.


Munoz I.,University of Murcia | Cepero A.,Centro Apicola Regional | Pinto M.A.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | And 3 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Microsporidiosis caused by Nosema species is one of the factors threatening the health of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), which is an essential element in agriculture mainly due to its pollination function. The dispersion of this pathogen may be influenced by many factors, including various aspects of beekeeping management such as introduction of queens with different origin. Herein we study the relation of the presence and distribution of Nosema spp. and the replacement of queens in honeybee populations settled on the Atlantic Canary Islands. While Nosema apis has not been detected, an increase of the presence and distribution of Nosema ceranae during the last decade has been observed in parallel with a higher frequency of foreign queens. On the other hand, a reduction of the number of N. ceranae positive colonies was observed on those islands with continued replacement of queens. We suggest that such replacement could help maintaining low rates of Nosema infection, but healthy queens native to these islands should be used in order to conserve local honeybee diversity. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Gomez-Moracho T.,Centro Apicola Regional | Maside X.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martin-Hernandez R.,Centro Apicola Regional | Martin-Hernandez R.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2014

Nosema ceranae is a widespread honeybee parasite, considered to be one of the pathogens involved in the colony losses phenomenon. To date, little is known about its intraspecific genetic variability. The few studies on N. ceranae variation have focused on the subunits of ribosomal DNA, which are not ideal for this purpose and have limited resolution. Here we characterized three single copy loci (Actin, Hsp70 and RPB1) in three N. ceranae isolates from Hungary and Hawaii. Our results provide evidence of unexpectedly high levels of intraspecific polymorphism, the coexistence of a wide variety of haplotypes within each bee colony, and the occurrence of genetic recombination in RPB1. Most haplotypes are not shared across isolates and derive from a few frequent haplotypes by a reduced number of singletons (mutations that appear usually just once in the sample), which suggest that they have a fairly recent origin. Overall, our data indicate that this pathogen has experienced a recent population expansion. The presence of multiple haplotypes within individual isolates could be explained by the existence of different strains of N. ceranae infecting honeybee colonies in the field which complicates, and must not be overlooked, further analysis of host-parasite interactions. © Cambridge University Press 2013.

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