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San Juan de la Rambla, Spain

Dorta E.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Lobo M.G.,Instituto Canario Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Gonzalez M.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to analyze the extraction efficiency of antioxidants from mango peel by comparing two techniques: microwave-assisted (MAE) and traditional solvent (TE) extraction. The number of extraction steps, water content in the extractant, peel weight-to-solvent volume ratio in extractions and extraction time all had an influence on obtaining extracts with high antioxidant capacity, but the extraction technique and the water content in the extractant were the factors with the greatest effect. Using three steps, a water content of 50 % in the ethanol:water extractant, an extraction time of 60 min and a weight-to-volume ratio of 1:10 or 1:50 (w/v) led to the highest antioxidant activity and phytochemicals content in extracts. The extraction time needed to extract phytochemicals from mango peel was similar when MAE and TE were used. However, the antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content were around 1.5-6.0 times higher in the extracts obtained by MAE. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Gamboa-Santos J.,Institute Investigacion En Ciencias Of La Alimentacion Cial Csic Uam | Cristina Soria A.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC | Perez-Mateos M.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion Ictan Csic | Carrasco J.A.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Of Alimentos Y Nutricion Ictan Csic | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Vitamin C content and sensorial properties have been evaluated in air-dried carrots previously subjected to different ultrasound (US) or conventional blanching pretreatments. In addition, mass spectral fingerprints obtained by the Headspace ChemSensor System have been evaluated for the first time for classification of carrots according to their processing. Conventional blanching treatments at high temperature gave rise to carrots with retention of vitamin C in the range 37.5-85%, whereas carrots blanched conventionally at 60 °C and by US-probe at temperatures up to 60 and 70 °C showed vitamin C retention values lower than 4%. Regarding sensorial analysis of rehydrated carrots, US-pretreated samples presented acceptable quality, and no statistically significant differences with respect to conventionally blanched carrots, were detected. In spite of this, differentiation of samples processed under comparable intensity conditions and/or with similar composition was possible from their mass spectral fingerprints after chemometric data analysis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Neves V.C.,University of The Azores | Bried J.,University of The Azores | Gonzalez-Solis J.,University of Barcelona | Roscales J.L.,University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012

Trophic ecology and movements are critical issues for understanding the role of marine predators in food webs and for facing the challenges of their conservation. Seabird foraging ecology has been increasingly studied, but small elusive species, such as those forming the 'little shearwater' complex, remain poorly known. We present the first study on the movements and feeding ecology of the Barolo shearwater Puffinus baroli baroli in a colony from the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic), combining global location-sensing units, stable isotope analyses of feathers (δ13C and δ15N), stomach flushings and data from maximum depth gauges. During the chick-rearing period, parents visited their nests most nights, foraged mainly south of the colony and fed at lower trophic levels than during the non-breeding period. Squid was the most diverse prey (6 families and at least 10 different taxa), but species composition varied considerably between years. Two squid families, Onychoteuthidae and Argonautidae, and the fish family Phycidae accounted for 82.3% of ingested prey by number. On average, maximum dive depths per foraging trip reached 14.8 m (range: 7.9 to 23.1 m). After the breeding period, birds dispersed offshore in all directions and up to 2500 km from the breeding colony, and fed at higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the Barolo shearwater is a non-migratory shearwater feeding at the lowest trophic level among Macaronesian seabirds, showing both diurnal and nocturnal activity and feeding deeper in the water column, principally on small schooling squid and fish. These traits contrast with those of 3 other Azorean Procellariiformes (Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, the Madeiran storm-petrel Oceanodroma castro and Monteiro's storm-petrel O. monteiroi), indicating ecological segregation within the Azorean seabird community. © Inter-Research 2012. Source


Medel S.,CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology | Bosch P.,CSIC - Institute of Polymer Science and Technology | De La Torre C.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC | Ramirez P.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2014

The synthesis of two new fluorescent hyperbranched polymers with low molecular weight macromolecular skeleton is presented. An experimental approach to obtain fluorescent dansyl derivatives of commercial hydroxyl-terminated hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) have been obtained through click chemistry reactions. Photophysical characterization of the HBP probes compared with their low molecular weight reference compounds shows that the fluorophore in the polymer skeleton behaves as an individual molecule, showing similar emission properties in terms of absorption extinction coefficient, fluorescence quantum yields and position of the fluorescent band. Solvatochromic study of the HBPs in several solvents using ET30, π∗ and SPP scales demonstrates that there is not a loss of sensitivity towards polarity when the sensor moiety is included in the HBP structure. The absence of quenching deactivation processes in these multifunctional sensors has been attributed to their irregular hyperbranched skeleton, in contrast to what occurs in highly regular dendrimeric analogues. The advantage of the oligomeric probes versus the monomeric ones has been checked preparing transparent and sensitive films using the fluorophores as dopants. The swelling kinetics of the films has been monitored by fluorescence and the diffusion coefficient estimated. Negligible extraction of the hyperbranched probes was found for long time immersions of the films in acetonitrile, whereas low molecular weight derivatives showed continuous extraction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Fraser-Reid B.,Natural Products and Glycotechnology Research Institute Inc. | Ganney P.,Natural Products and Glycotechnology Research Institute Inc. | Ramamurty C.V.S.,Natural Products and Glycotechnology Research Institute Inc. | Gomez A.M.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC | Lopez J.C.,Institute Quimica Organica General IQOG CSIC
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

Strategically derivatized NPOE glycosyl donors, are able to efficiently glycosylate silylated nucleobases under mild conditions, even as low as -78°C if necessary. Ensuring trans-1,2 glycosylation, thus permitting, unlike classical procedures, a Reverse Strategy for the synthesis of ribonucleosides, where glycosylation occurs late, rather than early, and convergency is optimized. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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