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San Juan de la Rambla, Spain

Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2011

The aminoallene moiety represents an excellent building block for heterocyclization reactions, affording a large number of cyclic structures containing different sized skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been studied under basic and electrophile-induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative relying on the activation of the allenic component. This overview focuses on the most recently developed cyclizations of aminoallenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, as well as for the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Aragoncillo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The chemistry of allenes is an appealing topic which fascinates chemists nowadays. Their reactivity and versatility makes this skeleton a useful moiety to create a great variety of structures depending on the functional groups attached and the reaction conditions used. Recently, there is a growing interest in the study of the reactivity of bis(allenes) inspired in the chemistry developed in simple allenes. In this review a collection of examples of cyclization reactions of bis(allenes) is presented as well as the future perspectives. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne).Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars.We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products) and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored) from easily accessible allenic carbamates.In addition, we discuss the direct gold-catalyzed cycloketalization of alkynyldioxolanes, as well as aminoketalization of alkynyloxazolidines. We performed labeling studies and density functional calculations to gain insight into the mechanisms of the bis-heterocyclization reactions. We also describe the controlled gold-catalyzed reactions of primary and secondary propargylic hydroperoxides with a variety of nucleophiles including alcohols and phenols, allowing the direct synthesis of β-functionalized ketones. Through computations and 18O-labeling experiments, we discovered various aspects of the controlled reactivity of propargylic hydroperoxides with external nucleophiles under gold catalysis. The mechanism resembles a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement, but notably, the presence and geometry characteristics of the OOH functional group allow a new pathway to happen, which cannot apply to propargylic alcohols. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Chemical Record | Year: 2011

The hybrid allenic β-lactam moiety represents an excellent building block for carbo- and heterocyclization reactions, affording a large number of cyclic structures containing different sized skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been studied under thermal and radical-induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition-metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative that relies on the activation of the allenic component. On the other hand, the intramolecular version has attracted much attention as a strategy for the synthesis of bi- and tricyclic compounds in a regio- and stereoselective manner. This overview focuses on the most recently developed cyclizations on 2-azetidinone-tethered allenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, as well as for the regio- and diastereoselectivities of the cyclizations. © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Aragoncillo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

The allene moiety represents an excellent partner for the [2+2] cycloaddition with alkenes and alkynes, affording the cyclobutane and cyclobutene skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been widely studied under thermal, photochemical and microwave induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative relying on the activation of the allenic component. On the other hand, the intramolecular version has attracted much attention as a strategy for the synthesis of polycyclic compounds in a regio- and stereoselective fashion. This critical review focuses on the most recently developed [2+2] cycloadditions on allenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, the regio- and diastereoselectivity of the cycloadducts formed (103 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

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