Institute Quimica Organica General

San Juan de la Rambla, Spain

Institute Quimica Organica General

San Juan de la Rambla, Spain
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Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Aragoncillo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

The chemistry of allenes is an appealing topic which fascinates chemists nowadays. Their reactivity and versatility makes this skeleton a useful moiety to create a great variety of structures depending on the functional groups attached and the reaction conditions used. Recently, there is a growing interest in the study of the reactivity of bis(allenes) inspired in the chemistry developed in simple allenes. In this review a collection of examples of cyclization reactions of bis(allenes) is presented as well as the future perspectives. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Advanced Synthesis and Catalysis | Year: 2011

The aminoallene moiety represents an excellent building block for heterocyclization reactions, affording a large number of cyclic structures containing different sized skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been studied under basic and electrophile-induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative relying on the activation of the allenic component. This overview focuses on the most recently developed cyclizations of aminoallenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, as well as for the regio- and stereoselectivity of the cyclizations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

Although gold is chemically inert as a bulk metal, the landmark discovery that gold nanoparticles can be effective catalysts has opened up new and exciting research opportunities in the field. In recent years, there has been growth in the number of reactions catalyzed by gold complexes [gold(I) and gold(III)], usually as homogeneous catalysts, because they are soft Lewis acids. In addition, alkynes and allenes have interesting reactivities and selectivities, notably their ability to produce complex structures in very few steps. In this Account, we describe our work in gold catalysis with a focus on the formation of C-C and C-O bonds using allenes and alkynes as starting materials. Of these, oxa- and carbo-cyclizations are perhaps the best known and most frequently studied. We have divided those contributions into sections arranged according to the nature of the starting material (allene versus alkyne).Gold-catalyzed carbocyclizations in allenyl C2-linked indoles, allenyl-β-lactams, and allenyl sugars follow different mechanistic pathways. The cyclization of indole-tethered allenols results in the efficient synthesis of carbazole derivatives, for example. However, the compound produced from gold-catalyzed 9-endo carbocyclization of (aryloxy)allenyl-tethered 2-azetidinones is in noticeable contrast to the 5-exo hydroalkylation product that results from allenyl sugars.We have illustrated the unusual preference for the 4-exo-dig cyclization in allene chemistry, as well as the rare β-hydride elimination reaction, in gold catalysis from readily available α-allenols. We have also observed in γ-allenols that a (methoxymethyl)oxy protecting group not only masks a hydroxyl functionality but also exerts directing effects as a controlling unit in a gold-catalyzed regioselectivity reversal. Our recent work has also led to a combined experimental and computational study on regioselective gold-catalyzed synthetic routes to 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones (kinetically controlled products) and 1,3-oxazin-2-one derivatives (thermodynamically favored) from easily accessible allenic carbamates.In addition, we discuss the direct gold-catalyzed cycloketalization of alkynyldioxolanes, as well as aminoketalization of alkynyloxazolidines. We performed labeling studies and density functional calculations to gain insight into the mechanisms of the bis-heterocyclization reactions. We also describe the controlled gold-catalyzed reactions of primary and secondary propargylic hydroperoxides with a variety of nucleophiles including alcohols and phenols, allowing the direct synthesis of β-functionalized ketones. Through computations and 18O-labeling experiments, we discovered various aspects of the controlled reactivity of propargylic hydroperoxides with external nucleophiles under gold catalysis. The mechanism resembles a Meyer-Schuster rearrangement, but notably, the presence and geometry characteristics of the OOH functional group allow a new pathway to happen, which cannot apply to propargylic alcohols. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Merino E.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Ribagorda M.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Control over molecular motion represents an important objective in modern chemistry. Aromatic azobenzenes are excellent candidates as molecular switches since they can exist in two forms, namely the cis (Z) and trans (E) isomers, which can interconvert both photochemically and thermally. This transformation induces a molecular movement and a significant geometric change, therefore the azobenzene unit is an excellent candidate to build dynamic molecular devices. We describe selected examples of systems containing an azobenzene moiety and their motions and geometrical changes caused by external stimuli. © 2012 Merino and Ribagorda; licensee Beilstein-Institut. License and terms: see end of document.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Aragoncillo C.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2010

The allene moiety represents an excellent partner for the [2+2] cycloaddition with alkenes and alkynes, affording the cyclobutane and cyclobutene skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been widely studied under thermal, photochemical and microwave induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative relying on the activation of the allenic component. On the other hand, the intramolecular version has attracted much attention as a strategy for the synthesis of polycyclic compounds in a regio- and stereoselective fashion. This critical review focuses on the most recently developed [2+2] cycloadditions on allenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, the regio- and diastereoselectivity of the cycloadducts formed (103 references). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Alcaide B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Almendros P.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Chemical Record | Year: 2011

The hybrid allenic β-lactam moiety represents an excellent building block for carbo- and heterocyclization reactions, affording a large number of cyclic structures containing different sized skeletons in a single step. This strategy has been studied under thermal and radical-induced conditions. More recently, the use of transition-metal catalysis has been introduced as an alternative that relies on the activation of the allenic component. On the other hand, the intramolecular version has attracted much attention as a strategy for the synthesis of bi- and tricyclic compounds in a regio- and stereoselective manner. This overview focuses on the most recently developed cyclizations on 2-azetidinone-tethered allenes along with remarkable early works accounting for the mechanism, as well as for the regio- and diastereoselectivities of the cyclizations. © 2011 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Casarrubios L.,Complutense University of Madrid | De La Torre M.C.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Sierra M.A.,Complutense University of Madrid
Chemistry - A European Journal | Year: 2013

CuI-catalyzed 1,3-cycloaddition of azides and alkynes (CuAAC) is one of the most powerful synthetic methodologies known. However, its use to prepare well-defined multimetallic structures is underdeveloped. Apart from the applications of this reaction to anchor different organometallic reagents to surfaces, polymers, and dendrimers, only isolated examples of CuAAC with metal-η1-alkyne and metal-azide complexes to prepare multimetal entities have been reported. This concept sketches the potential of these reactions not only to prepare "a la carte" multimetal 1,2,3-triazole derivatives, but also to discover new and unprecedented reactions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Suarez J.R.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Chiara J.L.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

A new procedure has been developed for the direct intermolecular C-H amination of simple hydrocarbons using shelf-stable nonafluorobutanesulfonyl azide in the presence of a dirhodium(ii) tetracarboxylate catalyst under mild reaction conditions. Some mechanistic details are briefly discussed on the basis of control experiments. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Oroz-Guinea I.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Garcia-Junceda E.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2013

To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a reversible process to become irreversible, to shift the equilibrium reaction in such a way that enantiopure compounds can be obtained from prochiral or racemic substrates, reduce or eliminate problems due to product inhibition or prevent the shortage of substrates by dilution or degradation in the bulk media, etc. In this review we want to illustrate the developments of recent studies involving in vitro multi-enzyme reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Asensio J.L.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Arda A.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Canada F.J.,Institute Quimica Organica General | Jimenez-Barbero J.,Institute Quimica Organica General
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

The recognition of saccharides by proteins has far reaching implications in biology, technology, and drug design. Within the past two decades, researchers have directed considerable effort toward a detailed understanding of these processes. Early crystallographic studies revealed, not surprisingly, that hydrogen-bonding interactions are usually involved in carbohydrate recognition. But less expectedly, researchers observed that despite the highly hydrophilic character of most sugars, aromatic rings of the receptor often play an important role in carbohydrate recognition.With further research, scientists now accept that noncovalent interactions mediated by aromatic rings are pivotal to sugar binding. For example, aromatic residues often stack against the faces of sugar pyranose rings in complexes between proteins and carbohydrates. Such contacts typically involve two or three CH groups of the pyranoses and the π electron density of the aromatic ring (called CH/π bonds), and these interactions can exhibit a variety of geometries, with either parallel or nonparallel arrangements of the aromatic and sugar units.In this Account, we provide an overview of the structural and thermodynamic features of protein-carbohydrate interactions, theoretical and experimental efforts to understand stacking in these complexes, and the implications of this understanding for chemical biology. The interaction energy between different aromatic rings and simple monosaccharides based on quantum mechanical calculations in the gas phase ranges from 3 to 6 kcal/mol range. Experimental values measured in water are somewhat smaller, approximately 1.5 kcal/mol for each interaction between a monosaccharide and an aromatic ring. This difference illustrates the dependence of these intermolecular interactions on their context and shows that this stacking can be modulated by entropic and solvent effects. Despite their relatively modest influence on the stability of carbohydrate/protein complexes, the aromatic platforms play a major role in determining the specificity of the molecular recognition process.The recognition of carbohydrate/aromatic interactions has prompted further analysis of the properties that influence them. Using a variety of experimental and theoretical methods, researchers have worked to quantify carbohydrate/aromatic stacking and identify the features that stabilize these complexes. Researchers have used site-directed mutagenesis, organic synthesis, or both to incorporate modifications in the receptor or ligand and then quantitatively analyzed the structural and thermodynamic features of these interactions. Researchers have also synthesized and characterized artificial receptors and simple model systems, employing a reductionistic chemistry-based strategy. Finally, using quantum mechanics calculations, researchers have examined the magnitude of each property's contribution to the interaction energy. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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