Institute Quimica Medica IQM

San Juan de la Rambla, Spain

Institute Quimica Medica IQM

San Juan de la Rambla, Spain
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Ibanez-Escribano A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Nogal-Ruiz J.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gomez-Barrio A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Aran V.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2016

A selection of 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3-ones (1-19) and 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles substituted at positions 1 (20-24) or 2 (25-39) from our in-house compound library were screened in vitro against the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen, Trichomonas vaginalis. A total of 41% of the studied molecules (16/39) achieved a significant activity of more than 85% growth inhibition at the highest concentration assayed (100 Âg mL-1). Among these compounds, 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazole derivatives 23, 24, 25 and 27 inhibited parasite growth by more than 50% at 10 Âg mL-1. In addition, the first two compounds (23, 24) still showed remarkable activity at the lowest dose tested (1 Âg mL-1), inhibiting parasite growth by nearly 40%. Their specific activity towards the parasite was corroborated by the determination of their non-specific cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. The four mentioned compounds exhibited non-cytotoxic profiles at all of the concentrations assayed, showing a fair antiparasitic selectivity index (SI > 7·5). In silico studies were performed to predict pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug-score using Molinspiration and OSIRIS computational tools. The current in vitro results supported by the virtual screening suggest 2-substituted and, especially, 1-substituted 3-alkoxy-5-nitroindazoles as promising starting scaffolds for further development of novel chemical compounds with the main aim of promoting highly selective trichomonacidal lead-like drugs with adequate pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles. © 2015 Cambridge University Press.


Gonzalez-Lafuente L.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Gonzalez-Lafuente L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Egea J.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Egea J.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 14 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Benzothiazepine CGP37157 is widely used as tool to explore the role of mitochondria in cell Ca2+ handling, by its blocking effect of the mitochondria Na+/Ca2+ exchanger. Recently, CGP37157 has shown to exhibit neuroprotective properties. In the trend to improve its neuroprotection profile, we have synthesized ITH12505, an isosteric analogue having a methyl instead of chlorine at C2′ of the phenyl ring. ITH12505 has exerted neuroprotective properties similar to CGP37157 in chromaffin cells and hippocampal slices stressed with veratridine. Also, both compounds afforded neuroprotection in hippocampal slices stressed with glutamate. However, while ITH12505 elicited protection in SH-SY5Y cells stressed with oligomycin A/rotenone, CGP37157 was ineffective. In hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen/glucose deprivation plus reoxygenation, ITH12505 offered protection at 3-30 μM, while CGP37157 only protected at 30 μM. Both compounds caused blockade of Ca2+ channels in high K+-depolarized SH-SY5Y cells. An in vitro experiment for assaying central nervous system penetration (PAMPA-BBB; parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain barrier) revealed that both compounds could cross the blood-brain barrier, thus reaching their biological targets in the central nervous system. In conclusion, by causing a mild isosteric replacement in the benzothiazepine CGP37157, we have obtained ITH12505, with improved neuroprotective properties. These findings may inspire the design and synthesis of new benzothiazepines targeting mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, having antioxidant properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Vega M.C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Vega M.C.,Chilean Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnology | Rolon M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Rolon M.,Chilean Center of Nanosciences and Nanotechnology | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

Chagas disease chemotherapy, currently based on only two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, is far from satisfactory and therefore the development of new antichagasic compounds remains an important goal. On the basis of antichagasic properties previously described for some 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3- ones (21, 33) and in order to initiate the optimization of activity of this kind of compounds, we have prepared a series of related analogs (22-32, 34-38, 58 and 59) and tested in vitro these products against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. 2-Benzyl-1-propyl (22), 2-benzyl-1-isopropyl (23) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives have shown high trypanocidal activity and low unspecific toxicity. Other indazole derivatives with different substitution patterns (1-substituted 3-alkoxy-1H-indazoles and 2-substituted 3-alkoxy-2H-indazoles), arising from the synthetic procedures used to prepare the mentioned indazolinones, have moderate to low effectiveness. The exploration of SAR information using the concept of an activity landscape has been carried out with SARANEA software. We have also searched for structural similarities between 225 known antiprotozoan drugs and compound 22. The results confirm that compounds 22-24 constitute promising leads and that 5-nitroindazolin-3-one system is a novel anti-T. cruzi scaffold which may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of Chagas disease. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Lorrio S.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Romero A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gonzalez-Lafuente L.,Hospital Universitario Of La Princesa | Gonzalez-Lafuente L.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 12 more authors.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

ITH12246 (ethyl 5-amino-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,8] naphthyridine-3-carboxylate) is a 1,8-naphthyridine described to feature an interesting neuroprotective profile in in vitro models of Alzheimer's disease. These effects were proposed to be due in part to a regulatory action on protein phosphatase 2A inhibition, as it prevented binding of its inhibitor okadaic acid. We decided to investigate the pharmacological properties of ITH12246, evaluating its ability to counteract the memory impairment evoked by scopolamine, a muscarinic antagonist described to promote memory loss, as well as to reduce the infarct volume in mice suffering phototrombosis. Prior to conducting these experiments, we confirmed its in vitro neuroprotective activity against both oxidative stress and Ca2+ overload-derived excitotoxicity, using SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and rat hippocampal slices. Using a predictive model of blood-brain barrier crossing, it seems that the passage of ITH12246 is not hindered. Its potential hepatotoxicity was observed only at very high concentrations, from 0.1 mM. ITH12246, at the concentration of 10 mg/kg i.p., was able to improve the memory index of mice treated with scopolamine, from 0.22 to 0.35, in a similar fashion to the well-known Alzheimer's disease drug galantamine 2.5 mg/kg. On the other hand, ITH12246, at the concentration of 2.5 mg/kg, reduced the phototrombosis-triggered infarct volume by 67%. In the same experimental conditions, 15 mg/kg melatonin, used as control standard, reduced the infarct volume by 30%. All of these findings allow us to consider ITH12246 as a new potential drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, which would act as a multifactorial neuroprotectant. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Palmeiro-Roldan R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Fonseca-Berzal C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gomez-Barrio A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Aran V.J.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

This work aims to develop novel benznidazole (BZN) solid dispersions (SD) to improve its solubility and bioavailability properties. Low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were evaluated as carriers. BZN solid dispersions containing different ratios of carrier were prepared by a freeze-drying process and characterized by SEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dissolution studies. The reduced BNZ crystallinity in the new formulations was confirmed by XRD, and supported by DSC. BNZ:L-HPC solid dispersion at a 1:3 ratio (w/w) (SD-1:3 L-HPC) improved the BNZ dissolution rate (85% at 5 min) in comparison with BNZ raw material (23% at 5 min). However, NaDC formulations showed a prolonged release (24% at 30 min for SD-1:3 NaDC), due to the formation of a sustained release matrix in acidic medium. In vivo studies performed in a murine model of Chagas disease showed that the formulation achieving the highest parasitemia suppression at a low dose of 25 mg/kg/day after five days of treatment was SD-1:3 L-HPC (60% of parasitemia suppression versus 33% of suppression exerted by BNZ), suggesting that BNZ:L-HPC systems enhance the bioavailability of the drug. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Institute Quimica Medica IQM, Complutense University of Madrid and Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Type: | Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry | Year: 2016

Two series of new 5-nitroindazole derivatives, 1-substituted 2-benzylindazolin-3-ones (6-29, series A) and 3-alkoxy-2-benzyl-2H-indazoles (30-37, series B), containing differently functionalized chains at position 1 and 3, respectively, have been synthesized starting from 2-benzyl-5-nitroindazolin-3-one 5, and evaluated against the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis, etiological agents of Chagas disease and trichomonosis, respectively. Many indazolinones of series A were efficient against different morphological forms of T.cruzi CL Brener strain (compounds 6, 7, 9, 10 and 19-21: IC50=1.58-4.19M for epimastigotes; compounds 6, 19-21 and 24: IC50=0.22-0.54M for amastigotes) being as potent as the reference drug benznidazole. SAR analysis suggests that electron-donating groups at position 1 of indazolinone ring are associated with an improved antichagasic activity. Moreover, compounds of series A displayed low unspecific toxicities against an invitro model of mammalian cells (fibroblasts), which were reflected in high values of the selectivity indexes (SI). Compound 20 was also very efficient against amastigotes from Tulahuen and Y strains of T.cruzi (IC50=0.81 and 0.60M, respectively), showing low toxicity towards cardiac cells (LC50>100M). In what concerns compounds of series B, some of them displayed moderate activity against trophozoites of a metronidazole-sensitive isolate of T.vaginalis (35 and 36: IC50=9.82 and 7.25M, respectively), with low unspecific toxicity towards Vero cells. Compound 36 was also active against a metronidazole-resistant isolate (IC50=9.11M) and can thus be considered a good prototype for the development of drugs directed to T.vaginalis resistant to 5-nitroimidazoles.


PubMed | Institute Quimica Medica IQM, Complutense University of Madrid and Santa Clara University
Type: | Journal: Journal of microbiological methods | Year: 2014

In the current report, a sequential step-wise methodology based on in silico, in vitro and in vivo experimental procedures for the prompt detection of potential trichomonacidal drugs is proposed. A combinatorial of 12 QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) models based on Linear Discrimination Analysis (LDA) are suggested for the rational identification of new trichomonacidal drugs from virtual screening of in house chemical libraries and drug databases. Subsequently, compounds selected as potential anti-trichomonas are screened in vitro against Trichomonas vaginalis. Finally, molecules with specific trichomonacidal activity are evaluated in vivo. Herein, different molecules were exposed to the proposed methodology. Firstly, the agents were virtually screened and two of the eight molecules (G-1 and dimetridazole) were classified as trichomonacidals by the 12 models. Subsequently both drugs were proved in vitro and in vivo following the workflow procedure. Although a remarkable in vitro activity was observed in both cases, dimetridazole achieved higher MIC100 activity than metronidazole against the resistant isolate. Furthermore, the in vivo models showed a remarkable reduction of lesions of more than 55% in both compounds. These observations support the current flowchart screening and suggest the use of dimetridazole as a promising drug-like scaffold for novel therapeutic alternatives against T. vaginalis resistant infections.


Marin C.,University of Granada | Ramirez-Macias I.,University of Granada | Rosales M.J.,University of Granada | Muro B.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2015

The antiprotozoal activity of some indazole-derived amines (2, 3, 5-8) as well as that of some simple structurally related 3-alkoxy-1-alkyl-5-nitroindazoles (1, 4) against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis is reported. In some cases, these compounds showed in vitro activities against the different morphological forms of Leishmania similar to or higher than those of the reference drug glucantime; this fact, along with low unspecific cytotoxicities against macrophages shown by some of them, led to good selectivity indexes (SI). The high efficiency of some 5-nitroindazoles against the mentioned protozoa was confirmed by further in vitro studies on infection rates. Complementary analyses by 1H NMR of the changes on the metabolites excreted by parasites after treatment with the more active indazole derivatives in many cases showed the decreased excretion of succinate and increased levels of acetate, lactate and alanine, as well as, in some cases, the appearance of glycine and pyruvate as new metabolites. Damage caused by indazoles at the glycosomal or mitochondrial level are consistent with these metabolic changes as well as with the huge ultrastructural alterations observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), especially affecting the mitochondria and other cytoplasmic organelles. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Muro B.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | Reviriego F.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | Navarro P.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | Marin C.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of some 3-alkoxy-1-alkyl- (1, 4) and 3-alkoxy-1-(ω-aminoalkyl)-5-nitroindazoles (2, 3, 5-8) against different morphological forms of Trypanosoma cruzi are reported. These compounds were prepared using simple alkylation reactions and, usually, taking advantage of the reactivity of some indazole-derived betaines previously studied by us. Most indazole derivatives showed in vitro activities similar or higher than those of the reference drug benznidazole; this fact, along with low unspecific cytotoxicities against Vero cells shown by some of them, led to very good selectivity indexes (SI). The high efficiency of 5-nitroindazoles 1 and 2 against T. cruzi was confirmed by further in vitro studies on infection rates and by an additional in vivo study in a murine model of acute and chronic Chagas disease. Complementary analyses of the changes in the metabolites excreted by the parasite and on the ultrastructural alterations induced after treatment with indazole derivatives 1 and 2 were also conducted. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Azofra L.M.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | Quesada-Moreno M.M.,University of Jaén | Alkorta I.,Institute Quimica Medica IQM | Aviles-Moreno J.R.,University of Jaén | And 3 more authors.
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2015

The biochemically important interconversion process between aldoses and ketoses is assumed to take place via 1,2-enediol or 1,2-enediolate intermediates, but such intermediates have never been isolated. The current work was undertaken in an attempt to detect the presence of the 1,2-enediol structure of glycolaldehyde in alkaline medium, actually a 1,2-enediolate, and to try to clarify the scarce data existing about both the formation of deprotonated enediol and the aldo-enediolate equilibrium. The Raman spectra of neutral and basic solutions were recorded as a function of time for eleven days. Several bands associated with the presence of the enediolate were observed in alkaline medium. Glycolaldehyde exists as three different structures in aqueous solution at neutral pH, that is, hydrated aldehydes, aldehydes and dimers, with a respective ratio of approximately 4:0.25:1. Additionally, the formation of Z-enediolate forms takes place at basic pH, together with an increase in the concentration of aldehyde species, such as 2-oxoethan-1-olate, and a decrease in the concentrations of the hydrated aldehyde and dimeric forms. The theoretical ratio of ≈1.5:1 for aldehyde:Z-enediolate reproduces the experimental Raman spectrum in basic medium, with an additional contribution of the previously mentioned ratio between the hydrated aldehyde and dimeric forms. Finally, Raman spectroscopy allowed us to monitor the enolization of this carbohydrate model and conclude that aldo-enediol tautomerism - formally aldo-enediolate - happens when a suitable amount of basic species is added. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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