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Gueimonde M.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Collado M.C.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Clinical Microbiology and Infection

The development of extensive sequencing methods has allowed metagenomic studies on the human gut microbiome to be carried out. This has tremendously increased our knowledge on gut microbiota composition and activity, allowing microbiota aberrations related to different diseases to be identified. These aberrations constitute targets for the development of probiotics directed to correct them. Probiotics are extensively used to modulate gut microbiota. Nevertheless, metagenomic studies on the effects of probiotics are still very scarce. In the near future, the use of metagenomics promises to expand our understanding of probiotic action. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Delgado S.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Suarez A.,Servicio de Digestivo | Mayo B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla
International Journal of Food Microbiology

Forty two Propionibacterium isolates were recovered from biopsy samples of the gastric mucosa of eight out of 12 healthy people. Of these, 41 were identified as belonging to Propionibacterium acnes; the remaining isolate was identified as belonging to Propionibacterium granulosum. Repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR typing suggested that up to four strains might be present in the mucosa of the same individual. Sequence analysis of either recA, tly or camp5 genes of P. acnes isolates revealed two distinct phylogenetic lineages. As per the recA, most isolates belonged to type I, while the remainder of the isolates belonged to type II. Phenotypic analyses of representative isolates showed the different strains to have diverse biochemical properties. For example, large differences were seen in carbohydrate fermentation patterns, the results of qualitative and quantitative enzymatic profiling, and survival at acidic pH. In contrast, the patterns of resistance/susceptibility to a series of 16 antibiotics were rather similar, with no atypical resistances observed. The examined strains showed limited-if any-enzymatic activities that could be ultimately related to pathogenicity (lipolytic, proteolytic or haemolytic activity). This suggests that, in the gastric ecosystem, some Propionibacterium spp. genotypes and/or phenotypes can be considered true commensals. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Solis G.,Servicio de Pediatria | de los Reyes-Gavilan C.G.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Fernandez N.,Servicio de Pediatria | Margolles A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Gueimonde M.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla

The initial establishment of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria in the newborn and the role of breast-milk as a source of these microorganisms are not yet well understood. The establishment of these microorganisms during the first 3 months of life in 20 vaginally delivered breast-fed full-term infants, and the presence of viable Bifidobacterium in the corresponding breast-milk samples was evaluated. In 1 day-old newborns Enterococcus and Streptococcus were the microorganisms most frequently isolated, from 10 days of age until 3 months bifidobacteria become the predominant group. In breast-milk, Streptococcus was the genus most frequently isolated and Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were also obtained. Breast-milk contains viable lactobacilli and bifidobacteria that might contribute to the initial establishment of the microbiota in the newborn. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Alegria A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Delgado S.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Roces C.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Lopez B.,Proquiga S.A. | Mayo B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla
International Journal of Food Microbiology

Sixty bacterial strains were encountered by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) typing in a series of 306 Lactococcus lactis isolates collected during the manufacturing and ripening stages of five traditional, starter-free cheeses made from raw milk. Among the 60 strains, 17 were shown to produce bacteriocin-like compounds in both solid and liquid media. At a genotypic level, 16 of the strains were identified by molecular methods as belonging to L. lactis subsp. lactis and one to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Among the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains, phenotypic and genetic data determined that eleven produced either nisin A (nine strains) or nisin Z (two strains), and that five produced lactococcin 972. Variable levels of the two bacteriocins were produced by different strains. In addition, nisin was shown to be produced in inexpensive, dairy- and meat-based media, which will allow the practical application of its producing strains in industrial processes. Specific PCR and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis identified the inhibitor produced by the single L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolate as a lactococcin G-like bacteriocin. Beyond the use of bacteriocins as functional ingredients for the biopreservation of foods, the newly identified bacteriocin-producing L. lactis strains from traditional cheeses may also be useful for designing starter cultures with protective properties and/or adjunct cultures for accelerating cheese ripening. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Delgado S.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Leite A.M.O.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Leite A.M.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Ruas-Madiedo P.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla | Mayo B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla
Frontiers in Microbiology

This work characterizes a set of lactobacilli strains isolated from the stomach of healthy humans that might serve as probiotic cultures. Ten different strains were recognized by rep-PCR and PFGE fingerprinting among 19 isolates from gastric biopsies and stomach juice samples. These strains belonged to five species, Lactobacillus gasseri (3), Lactobacillus reuteri (2), Lactobacillus vaginalis (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (2) and Lactobacillus casei (1). All ten strains were subjected to a series of in vitro tests to assess their functional and technological properties, including acid resistance, bile tolerance, adhesion to epithelial gastric cells, production of antimicrobial compounds, inhibition of Helicobacter pylori, antioxidative activity, antibiotic resistance, carbohydrate fermentation, glycosidic activities, and ability to grow in milk. As expected, given their origin, all strains showed good resistance to low pH (3.0), with small reductions in counts after 90 min exposition to this pH. Species and strain-specific differences were detected in terms of the production of antimicrobials, antagonistic effects towards H. pylori, antioxidative activity and adhesion to gastric epithelial cells. None of the strains showed atypical resistance to a series of 16 antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Two L. reuteri strains were deemed as the most appropriate candidates to be used as potential probiotics against microbial gastric disorders; these showed good survival under gastrointestinal conditions reproduced in vitro, along with strong anti-Helicobacter and antioxidative activities. The two L. reuteri strains further displayed appropriated technological traits for their inclusion as adjunct functional cultures in fermented dairy products. © 2014 Delgado, Leite, Ruas-madiedo and Mayo. Source

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