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Alegria A.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Alegria A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Szczesny P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Szczesny P.,University of Warsaw | And 3 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Oscypek is a traditional Polish scalded-smoked cheese, with a protected-designation-of-origin (PDO) status, manufactured from raw sheep's milk without starter cultures in the Tatra Mountains region of Poland. This study was undertaken in order to gain insight into the microbiota that develops and evolves during the manufacture and ripening stages of Oscypek. To this end, we made use of both culturing and the culture-independent methods of PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The culture-dependent technique and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting detected the predominant microorganisms in traditional Oscypek, whereas the next-generation sequencing technique (454 pyrosequencing) revealed greater bacterial diversity. Besides members of the most abundant bacterial genera in dairy products, e.g., Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, identified by all three methods, other, subdominant bacteria belonging to the families Bifidobacteriaceae and Moraxellaceae (mostly Enhydrobacter), as well as various minor bacteria, were identified by pyrosequencing. The presence of bifidobacterial sequences in a cheese system is reported for the first time. In addition to bacteria, a great diversity of yeast species was demonstrated in Oscypek by the PCR-DGGE method. Culturing methods enabled the determination of a number of viable microorganisms from different microbial groups and their isolation for potential future applications in specific cheese starter cultures. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Delgado S.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Cabrera-Rubio R.,Centro Superior Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Csisp | Mira A.,Centro Superior Of Investigacion En Salud Publica Csisp | Suarez A.,Servicio de Digestivo | Mayo B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2013

Stomach mucosa biopsies and gastric juices samples of 12 healthy persons were analysed by culturing in selective- and non-selective-rich media. Microbial DNA from four mucosal samples was also amplified by nested PCR using universal bacterial primers, and the 16S rDNA amplicons pyrosequenced. The total number of cultivable microorganisms recovered from the samples ranged from 102 to 104 cfu/g or ml. The isolates were identified at the species level by PCR amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA. Isolates belonged mainly to four genera; Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. A total of 15,622 high-quality 16S rDNA sequence reads were obtained by pyrosequencing from the four mucosal samples. Sequence analysis grouped the reads into 59 families and 69 genera, revealing wide bacterial diversity. Considerable differences in the composition of the gastric microbiota were observed among the subjects, although in all samples the most abundant operational taxonomic units belonged to Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and Lactobacillus. Comparison of the stomach microbiota with that present in other parts of the human gastrointestinal tract revealed distinctive microbial communities. This is the first study in which a combination of culture and culture-independent techniques has been used to explore the bacterial diversity of the human stomach. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Rodriguez-Rubio L.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Martinez B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Rodriguez A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Donovan D.M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Garcia P.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2012

Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases have potential as antimicrobial agents due to their ability to lyse Gram-positive bacteria on contact. In this work, our aim was to improve the lytic activity of HydH5, a virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolase from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88. Full-length HydH5 and two truncated derivatives containing only the CHAP (cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase) domain exhibited high lytic activity against live S. aureus cells. In addition, three different fusion proteins were created between lysostaphin and HydH5, each of which showed higher staphylolytic activity than the parental enzyme or its deletion construct. Both parental and fusion proteins lysed S. aureus cells in zymograms and plate lysis and turbidity reduction assays. In plate lysis assays, HydH5 and its derivative fusions lysed bovine and human S. aureus strains, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain N315, and human Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Several nonstaphylococcal bacteria were not affected. HydH5 and its derivative fusion proteins displayed antimicrobial synergy with the endolysin LysH5 in vitro, suggesting that the two enzymes have distinct cut sites and, thus, may be more efficient in combination for the elimination of staphylococcal infections. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Garcia P.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Martinez B.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Rodriguez L.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Rodriguez A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Phage-encoded endolysins are recently considered as new biocontrol tools to inhibit pathogens in food. In this work, we have studied the ionic requirements for optimal lytic activity of LysH5, the endolysin encoded by the staphylococcal bacteriophage phi-SauS-IPLA88. LysH5 activity was inhibited by the presence of Mn++ and Zn++ and enhanced by Ca++, Mg++ and NaCl. When LysH5 was combined with nisin, a bacteriocin currently used as a biopreservative in food, a strong synergistic effect was observed. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of nisin and LysH5 were reduced 64- and 16-fold, respectively, as determined in checkerboard microtitre tests. In addition, nisin enhanced 8-fold the lytic activity of LysH5 on cell suspensions. The synergy observed in vitro was confirmed in challenge assays in pasteurized milk contaminated with S. aureus Sa9. Clearance of the pathogen was only achieved by the combined activity of both antimicrobials. As far as we know, this is the first study that exploits the possibilities of hurdle technology combining a phage-encoded endolysin and the bacteriocin nisin for efficient S. aureus inhibition in milk. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ladero V.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Fernandez M.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Cuesta I.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic | Alvarez M.A.,Institute Productos Lacteos Of Asturias Ipla Csic
Food Microbiology | Year: 2010

Tyramine is the most abundant biogenic amine in fermented dairy products, in which it is produced through the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine. This activity has been detected in a variety of lactic acid bacteria mainly belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus. This paper describes a culture-independent qPCR method, based on the specific amplification of the tdc gene, for the detection, quantification and identification of bacteria with the ability to produce tyramine. This method was found to be specific and to show a wide dynamic range, thus allowing the quantification of these tdc+ bacterial groups among the complex microbiota of cheese. tdc qPCR was used to follow the development of tdc+ microbiota during the manufacture of a blue-veined cheese (Cabrales) made from raw milk. In this type of cheese, tdc+ enterococci seem to be responsible for the high concentrations of tyramine detected. The method was also used to identify and quantify tdc+ enterococci and lactobacilli in 18 commercially available cheeses. Different types and numbers of these microorganisms were found. Their relationships with the concentration of tyramine and technological factors are discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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